Working...
ClinicalTrials.gov
ClinicalTrials.gov Menu

The Effects of Plantar Flexion Training in People With Chronic Stroke

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Know the risks and potential benefits of clinical studies and talk to your health care provider before participating. Read our disclaimer for details.
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03548090
Recruitment Status : Recruiting
First Posted : June 7, 2018
Last Update Posted : April 18, 2019
Sponsor:
Collaborator:
Texas Woman's University
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Daniel Wingard, The University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston

Brief Summary:

This study consists of three phases that aim to develop an exercise intervention to promote maximal activation of ankle plantar flexors in the paretic lower extrimty (LE) in order to restore a more normalized gait pattern in chronic stroke survivors.

The aim of the first phase is to determine if there are differences between standing on different levels of inclination on plantar flexion activation during forward movement of the contralateral LE in adults with chronic with stroke.

The aim of second phase is to determine if there are differences between different percentages of weight bearing on the paretic LE on plantar flexion activation during forward movement of the contralateral LE in adults with chronic stroke.

The aim of the third phase is to determine if there are differences between a 4-week plantar flexion training intervention and conventional physical therapy.


Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Stroke Hemiplegic Gait Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle of 0 degrees and 50% body weight Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle of 5 degrees and 50% body weight Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle determined to be optimal in phase 1 (either 0 or 5 degrees) and 75% body weight Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle determined to be optimal in phase 1 (either 0 or 5 degrees) and 90% body weight Other: Control 4-week exercise intervention Other: Experimental 4-week exercise intervention Other: Over-ground multi-directional gait training Other: Home exercise Not Applicable

Detailed Description:

Description of Arms:

This study has three phases. The first phase is performed in a cross-over fashion. Participants will stand on two different incline angles on the paretic LE and simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE. The testing order for the two different incline angles will be randomized, and all participants will be required to complete both incline angle conditions within a single test session.

The second phase will also be performed in a cross-over fashion. Participants will stand with three different percentages of body weight on their paretic LE while moving the skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE. The testing order for the three body weight percentages will be randomized. All participants will be required to complete all three body weight conditions within a single test session.

In the third phase, participants will be randomized to either a control 4-week exercise intervention (conventional physical therapy) or a 4-week experimental exercise intervention (plantar flexion training). Both the control and exerimental arms will complete over-ground multi-directional gait training and home exercise.


Layout table for study information
Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Estimated Enrollment : 50 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Crossover Assignment
Masking: Single (Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: The Effects of Plantar Flexion Training on Plantar Flexion Activation, Torque, and Step Length Asymmetry in People With Chronic Stroke
Actual Study Start Date : October 1, 2018
Estimated Primary Completion Date : May 1, 2020
Estimated Study Completion Date : July 1, 2020

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: 1
Phase 1 (skateboard exercise at 50% body weight and an incline level of 0 degrees, then 5 degrees), Phase 2 (skateboard exercise with incline level determined to be optimal in phase 1 and body weight at 50%, then 75%, then 90%), Phase 3 (control 4-week exercise intervention)
Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle of 0 degrees and 50% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (0 degrees) and with a specified body weight (50%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle of 5 degrees and 50% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (5 degrees) and with a specified body weight (50%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle determined to be optimal in phase 1 (either 0 or 5 degrees) and 75% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (either 0 or 5 degrees, whichever is determined during phase 1 to be optimal) and with a specified body weight (75%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle determined to be optimal in phase 1 (either 0 or 5 degrees) and 90% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (either 0 or 5 degrees, whichever is determined during phase 1 to be optimal) and with a specified body weight (90%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Control 4-week exercise intervention
This intervention occurs in phase 3. Subjects will participate in 1-hour sessions three times per week for four weeks. The control group will perform three sets of ten repetitions of the following 4 exercises, for a total of 120 repetitions: 1) standing hip abduction against green theraband resistance with upper extremity support, 2) sit to stands from chair with no upper extremity support, 3) bilateral calf raises with upper extremity support, and 4) right and left weight shifting exercises using a wobble board with upper extremity support available if needed.
Other Name: conventional physical therapy

Other: Over-ground multi-directional gait training
In the over-ground multi-directional gait protocol, the participant will walk 750 steps forward, 50 steps backward, and 200 side steps over level surfaces. The over ground gait training will focus on equalizing step length while performing multi-directional gait training.

Other: Home exercise
Home exercise consists of three sets of ten repetitions of the following three exercises to be performed on non-therapy days over the four weeks of phase 3: 1) sit to stands from chair with no upper extremity support, 2) bilateral calf raises with hand support, and 3) resisted side stepping to the non-paretic side using a green theraband with upper extremity support.

Experimental: 2
Phase 1 (skateboard exercise at 50% body weight and an incline level of 0 degrees, then 5 degrees), Phase 2 (skateboard exercise with incline level determined to be optimal in phase 1 and body weight at 50%, then 90%, then 75%), Phase 3 (control 4-week exercise intervention)
Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle of 0 degrees and 50% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (0 degrees) and with a specified body weight (50%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle of 5 degrees and 50% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (5 degrees) and with a specified body weight (50%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle determined to be optimal in phase 1 (either 0 or 5 degrees) and 75% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (either 0 or 5 degrees, whichever is determined during phase 1 to be optimal) and with a specified body weight (75%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle determined to be optimal in phase 1 (either 0 or 5 degrees) and 90% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (either 0 or 5 degrees, whichever is determined during phase 1 to be optimal) and with a specified body weight (90%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Control 4-week exercise intervention
This intervention occurs in phase 3. Subjects will participate in 1-hour sessions three times per week for four weeks. The control group will perform three sets of ten repetitions of the following 4 exercises, for a total of 120 repetitions: 1) standing hip abduction against green theraband resistance with upper extremity support, 2) sit to stands from chair with no upper extremity support, 3) bilateral calf raises with upper extremity support, and 4) right and left weight shifting exercises using a wobble board with upper extremity support available if needed.
Other Name: conventional physical therapy

Other: Over-ground multi-directional gait training
In the over-ground multi-directional gait protocol, the participant will walk 750 steps forward, 50 steps backward, and 200 side steps over level surfaces. The over ground gait training will focus on equalizing step length while performing multi-directional gait training.

Other: Home exercise
Home exercise consists of three sets of ten repetitions of the following three exercises to be performed on non-therapy days over the four weeks of phase 3: 1) sit to stands from chair with no upper extremity support, 2) bilateral calf raises with hand support, and 3) resisted side stepping to the non-paretic side using a green theraband with upper extremity support.

Experimental: 3
Phase 1 (skateboard exercise at 50% body weight and an incline level of 0 degrees, then 5 degrees), Phase 2 (skateboard exercise with incline level determined to be optimal in phase 1 and body weight at 75%, then 50%, then 90%), Phase 3 (control 4-week exercise intervention)
Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle of 0 degrees and 50% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (0 degrees) and with a specified body weight (50%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle of 5 degrees and 50% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (5 degrees) and with a specified body weight (50%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle determined to be optimal in phase 1 (either 0 or 5 degrees) and 75% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (either 0 or 5 degrees, whichever is determined during phase 1 to be optimal) and with a specified body weight (75%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle determined to be optimal in phase 1 (either 0 or 5 degrees) and 90% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (either 0 or 5 degrees, whichever is determined during phase 1 to be optimal) and with a specified body weight (90%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Control 4-week exercise intervention
This intervention occurs in phase 3. Subjects will participate in 1-hour sessions three times per week for four weeks. The control group will perform three sets of ten repetitions of the following 4 exercises, for a total of 120 repetitions: 1) standing hip abduction against green theraband resistance with upper extremity support, 2) sit to stands from chair with no upper extremity support, 3) bilateral calf raises with upper extremity support, and 4) right and left weight shifting exercises using a wobble board with upper extremity support available if needed.
Other Name: conventional physical therapy

Other: Over-ground multi-directional gait training
In the over-ground multi-directional gait protocol, the participant will walk 750 steps forward, 50 steps backward, and 200 side steps over level surfaces. The over ground gait training will focus on equalizing step length while performing multi-directional gait training.

Other: Home exercise
Home exercise consists of three sets of ten repetitions of the following three exercises to be performed on non-therapy days over the four weeks of phase 3: 1) sit to stands from chair with no upper extremity support, 2) bilateral calf raises with hand support, and 3) resisted side stepping to the non-paretic side using a green theraband with upper extremity support.

Experimental: 4
Phase 1 (skateboard exercise at 50% body weight and an incline level of 0 degrees, then 5 degrees), Phase 2 (skateboard exercise with incline level determined to be optimal in phase 1 and body weight at 75%, then 90%, then 50%), Phase 3 (control 4-week exercise intervention)
Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle of 0 degrees and 50% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (0 degrees) and with a specified body weight (50%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle of 5 degrees and 50% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (5 degrees) and with a specified body weight (50%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle determined to be optimal in phase 1 (either 0 or 5 degrees) and 75% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (either 0 or 5 degrees, whichever is determined during phase 1 to be optimal) and with a specified body weight (75%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle determined to be optimal in phase 1 (either 0 or 5 degrees) and 90% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (either 0 or 5 degrees, whichever is determined during phase 1 to be optimal) and with a specified body weight (90%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Control 4-week exercise intervention
This intervention occurs in phase 3. Subjects will participate in 1-hour sessions three times per week for four weeks. The control group will perform three sets of ten repetitions of the following 4 exercises, for a total of 120 repetitions: 1) standing hip abduction against green theraband resistance with upper extremity support, 2) sit to stands from chair with no upper extremity support, 3) bilateral calf raises with upper extremity support, and 4) right and left weight shifting exercises using a wobble board with upper extremity support available if needed.
Other Name: conventional physical therapy

Other: Over-ground multi-directional gait training
In the over-ground multi-directional gait protocol, the participant will walk 750 steps forward, 50 steps backward, and 200 side steps over level surfaces. The over ground gait training will focus on equalizing step length while performing multi-directional gait training.

Other: Home exercise
Home exercise consists of three sets of ten repetitions of the following three exercises to be performed on non-therapy days over the four weeks of phase 3: 1) sit to stands from chair with no upper extremity support, 2) bilateral calf raises with hand support, and 3) resisted side stepping to the non-paretic side using a green theraband with upper extremity support.

Experimental: 5
Phase 1 (skateboard exercise at 50% body weight and an incline level of 0 degrees, then 5 degrees), Phase 2 (skateboard exercise with incline level determined to be optimal in phase 1 and body weight at 90%, then 50%, then 75%), Phase 3 (control 4-week exercise intervention)
Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle of 0 degrees and 50% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (0 degrees) and with a specified body weight (50%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle of 5 degrees and 50% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (5 degrees) and with a specified body weight (50%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle determined to be optimal in phase 1 (either 0 or 5 degrees) and 75% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (either 0 or 5 degrees, whichever is determined during phase 1 to be optimal) and with a specified body weight (75%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle determined to be optimal in phase 1 (either 0 or 5 degrees) and 90% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (either 0 or 5 degrees, whichever is determined during phase 1 to be optimal) and with a specified body weight (90%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Control 4-week exercise intervention
This intervention occurs in phase 3. Subjects will participate in 1-hour sessions three times per week for four weeks. The control group will perform three sets of ten repetitions of the following 4 exercises, for a total of 120 repetitions: 1) standing hip abduction against green theraband resistance with upper extremity support, 2) sit to stands from chair with no upper extremity support, 3) bilateral calf raises with upper extremity support, and 4) right and left weight shifting exercises using a wobble board with upper extremity support available if needed.
Other Name: conventional physical therapy

Other: Over-ground multi-directional gait training
In the over-ground multi-directional gait protocol, the participant will walk 750 steps forward, 50 steps backward, and 200 side steps over level surfaces. The over ground gait training will focus on equalizing step length while performing multi-directional gait training.

Other: Home exercise
Home exercise consists of three sets of ten repetitions of the following three exercises to be performed on non-therapy days over the four weeks of phase 3: 1) sit to stands from chair with no upper extremity support, 2) bilateral calf raises with hand support, and 3) resisted side stepping to the non-paretic side using a green theraband with upper extremity support.

Experimental: 6
Phase 1 (skateboard exercise at 50% body weight and an incline level of 0 degrees, then 5 degrees), Phase 2 (skateboard exercise with incline level determined to be optimal in phase 1 and body weight at 90%, then 75%, then 50%), Phase 3 (control 4-week exercise intervention)
Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle of 0 degrees and 50% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (0 degrees) and with a specified body weight (50%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle of 5 degrees and 50% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (5 degrees) and with a specified body weight (50%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle determined to be optimal in phase 1 (either 0 or 5 degrees) and 75% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (either 0 or 5 degrees, whichever is determined during phase 1 to be optimal) and with a specified body weight (75%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle determined to be optimal in phase 1 (either 0 or 5 degrees) and 90% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (either 0 or 5 degrees, whichever is determined during phase 1 to be optimal) and with a specified body weight (90%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Control 4-week exercise intervention
This intervention occurs in phase 3. Subjects will participate in 1-hour sessions three times per week for four weeks. The control group will perform three sets of ten repetitions of the following 4 exercises, for a total of 120 repetitions: 1) standing hip abduction against green theraband resistance with upper extremity support, 2) sit to stands from chair with no upper extremity support, 3) bilateral calf raises with upper extremity support, and 4) right and left weight shifting exercises using a wobble board with upper extremity support available if needed.
Other Name: conventional physical therapy

Other: Over-ground multi-directional gait training
In the over-ground multi-directional gait protocol, the participant will walk 750 steps forward, 50 steps backward, and 200 side steps over level surfaces. The over ground gait training will focus on equalizing step length while performing multi-directional gait training.

Other: Home exercise
Home exercise consists of three sets of ten repetitions of the following three exercises to be performed on non-therapy days over the four weeks of phase 3: 1) sit to stands from chair with no upper extremity support, 2) bilateral calf raises with hand support, and 3) resisted side stepping to the non-paretic side using a green theraband with upper extremity support.

Experimental: 7
Phase 1 (skateboard exercise at 50% body weight and an incline level of 5 degrees, then 0 degrees), Phase 2 (skateboard exercise with incline level determined to be optimal in phase 1 and body weight at 50%, then 75%, then 90%), Phase 3 (control 4-week exercise intervention)
Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle of 0 degrees and 50% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (0 degrees) and with a specified body weight (50%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle of 5 degrees and 50% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (5 degrees) and with a specified body weight (50%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle determined to be optimal in phase 1 (either 0 or 5 degrees) and 75% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (either 0 or 5 degrees, whichever is determined during phase 1 to be optimal) and with a specified body weight (75%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle determined to be optimal in phase 1 (either 0 or 5 degrees) and 90% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (either 0 or 5 degrees, whichever is determined during phase 1 to be optimal) and with a specified body weight (90%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Control 4-week exercise intervention
This intervention occurs in phase 3. Subjects will participate in 1-hour sessions three times per week for four weeks. The control group will perform three sets of ten repetitions of the following 4 exercises, for a total of 120 repetitions: 1) standing hip abduction against green theraband resistance with upper extremity support, 2) sit to stands from chair with no upper extremity support, 3) bilateral calf raises with upper extremity support, and 4) right and left weight shifting exercises using a wobble board with upper extremity support available if needed.
Other Name: conventional physical therapy

Other: Over-ground multi-directional gait training
In the over-ground multi-directional gait protocol, the participant will walk 750 steps forward, 50 steps backward, and 200 side steps over level surfaces. The over ground gait training will focus on equalizing step length while performing multi-directional gait training.

Other: Home exercise
Home exercise consists of three sets of ten repetitions of the following three exercises to be performed on non-therapy days over the four weeks of phase 3: 1) sit to stands from chair with no upper extremity support, 2) bilateral calf raises with hand support, and 3) resisted side stepping to the non-paretic side using a green theraband with upper extremity support.

Experimental: 8
Phase 1 (skateboard exercise at 50% body weight and an incline level of 5 degrees, then 0 degrees), Phase 2 (skateboard exercise with incline level determined to be optimal in phase 1 and body weight at 50%, then 90%, then 75%), Phase 3 (control 4-week exercise intervention)
Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle of 0 degrees and 50% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (0 degrees) and with a specified body weight (50%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle of 5 degrees and 50% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (5 degrees) and with a specified body weight (50%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle determined to be optimal in phase 1 (either 0 or 5 degrees) and 75% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (either 0 or 5 degrees, whichever is determined during phase 1 to be optimal) and with a specified body weight (75%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle determined to be optimal in phase 1 (either 0 or 5 degrees) and 90% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (either 0 or 5 degrees, whichever is determined during phase 1 to be optimal) and with a specified body weight (90%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Control 4-week exercise intervention
This intervention occurs in phase 3. Subjects will participate in 1-hour sessions three times per week for four weeks. The control group will perform three sets of ten repetitions of the following 4 exercises, for a total of 120 repetitions: 1) standing hip abduction against green theraband resistance with upper extremity support, 2) sit to stands from chair with no upper extremity support, 3) bilateral calf raises with upper extremity support, and 4) right and left weight shifting exercises using a wobble board with upper extremity support available if needed.
Other Name: conventional physical therapy

Other: Over-ground multi-directional gait training
In the over-ground multi-directional gait protocol, the participant will walk 750 steps forward, 50 steps backward, and 200 side steps over level surfaces. The over ground gait training will focus on equalizing step length while performing multi-directional gait training.

Other: Home exercise
Home exercise consists of three sets of ten repetitions of the following three exercises to be performed on non-therapy days over the four weeks of phase 3: 1) sit to stands from chair with no upper extremity support, 2) bilateral calf raises with hand support, and 3) resisted side stepping to the non-paretic side using a green theraband with upper extremity support.

Experimental: 9
Phase 1 (skateboard exercise at 50% body weight and an incline level of 5 degrees, then 0 degrees), Phase 2 (skateboard exercise with incline level determined to be optimal in phase 1 and body weight at 75%, then 50%, then 90%), Phase 3 (control 4-week exercise intervention)
Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle of 0 degrees and 50% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (0 degrees) and with a specified body weight (50%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle of 5 degrees and 50% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (5 degrees) and with a specified body weight (50%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle determined to be optimal in phase 1 (either 0 or 5 degrees) and 75% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (either 0 or 5 degrees, whichever is determined during phase 1 to be optimal) and with a specified body weight (75%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle determined to be optimal in phase 1 (either 0 or 5 degrees) and 90% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (either 0 or 5 degrees, whichever is determined during phase 1 to be optimal) and with a specified body weight (90%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Control 4-week exercise intervention
This intervention occurs in phase 3. Subjects will participate in 1-hour sessions three times per week for four weeks. The control group will perform three sets of ten repetitions of the following 4 exercises, for a total of 120 repetitions: 1) standing hip abduction against green theraband resistance with upper extremity support, 2) sit to stands from chair with no upper extremity support, 3) bilateral calf raises with upper extremity support, and 4) right and left weight shifting exercises using a wobble board with upper extremity support available if needed.
Other Name: conventional physical therapy

Other: Over-ground multi-directional gait training
In the over-ground multi-directional gait protocol, the participant will walk 750 steps forward, 50 steps backward, and 200 side steps over level surfaces. The over ground gait training will focus on equalizing step length while performing multi-directional gait training.

Other: Home exercise
Home exercise consists of three sets of ten repetitions of the following three exercises to be performed on non-therapy days over the four weeks of phase 3: 1) sit to stands from chair with no upper extremity support, 2) bilateral calf raises with hand support, and 3) resisted side stepping to the non-paretic side using a green theraband with upper extremity support.

Experimental: 10
Phase 1 (skateboard exercise at 50% body weight and an incline level of 5 degrees, then 0 degrees), Phase 2 (skateboard exercise with incline level determined to be optimal in phase 1 and body weight at 75%, then 90%, then 50%), Phase 3 (control 4-week exercise intervention)
Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle of 0 degrees and 50% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (0 degrees) and with a specified body weight (50%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle of 5 degrees and 50% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (5 degrees) and with a specified body weight (50%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle determined to be optimal in phase 1 (either 0 or 5 degrees) and 75% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (either 0 or 5 degrees, whichever is determined during phase 1 to be optimal) and with a specified body weight (75%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle determined to be optimal in phase 1 (either 0 or 5 degrees) and 90% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (either 0 or 5 degrees, whichever is determined during phase 1 to be optimal) and with a specified body weight (90%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Control 4-week exercise intervention
This intervention occurs in phase 3. Subjects will participate in 1-hour sessions three times per week for four weeks. The control group will perform three sets of ten repetitions of the following 4 exercises, for a total of 120 repetitions: 1) standing hip abduction against green theraband resistance with upper extremity support, 2) sit to stands from chair with no upper extremity support, 3) bilateral calf raises with upper extremity support, and 4) right and left weight shifting exercises using a wobble board with upper extremity support available if needed.
Other Name: conventional physical therapy

Other: Over-ground multi-directional gait training
In the over-ground multi-directional gait protocol, the participant will walk 750 steps forward, 50 steps backward, and 200 side steps over level surfaces. The over ground gait training will focus on equalizing step length while performing multi-directional gait training.

Other: Home exercise
Home exercise consists of three sets of ten repetitions of the following three exercises to be performed on non-therapy days over the four weeks of phase 3: 1) sit to stands from chair with no upper extremity support, 2) bilateral calf raises with hand support, and 3) resisted side stepping to the non-paretic side using a green theraband with upper extremity support.

Experimental: 11
Phase 1 (skateboard exercise at 50% body weight and an incline level of 5 degrees, then 0 degrees), Phase 2 (skateboard exercise with incline level determined to be optimal in phase 1 and body weight at 90%, then 50%, then 75%), Phase 3 (control 4-week exercise intervention)
Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle of 0 degrees and 50% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (0 degrees) and with a specified body weight (50%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle of 5 degrees and 50% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (5 degrees) and with a specified body weight (50%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle determined to be optimal in phase 1 (either 0 or 5 degrees) and 75% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (either 0 or 5 degrees, whichever is determined during phase 1 to be optimal) and with a specified body weight (75%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle determined to be optimal in phase 1 (either 0 or 5 degrees) and 90% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (either 0 or 5 degrees, whichever is determined during phase 1 to be optimal) and with a specified body weight (90%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Control 4-week exercise intervention
This intervention occurs in phase 3. Subjects will participate in 1-hour sessions three times per week for four weeks. The control group will perform three sets of ten repetitions of the following 4 exercises, for a total of 120 repetitions: 1) standing hip abduction against green theraband resistance with upper extremity support, 2) sit to stands from chair with no upper extremity support, 3) bilateral calf raises with upper extremity support, and 4) right and left weight shifting exercises using a wobble board with upper extremity support available if needed.
Other Name: conventional physical therapy

Other: Over-ground multi-directional gait training
In the over-ground multi-directional gait protocol, the participant will walk 750 steps forward, 50 steps backward, and 200 side steps over level surfaces. The over ground gait training will focus on equalizing step length while performing multi-directional gait training.

Other: Home exercise
Home exercise consists of three sets of ten repetitions of the following three exercises to be performed on non-therapy days over the four weeks of phase 3: 1) sit to stands from chair with no upper extremity support, 2) bilateral calf raises with hand support, and 3) resisted side stepping to the non-paretic side using a green theraband with upper extremity support.

Experimental: 12
Phase 1 (skateboard exercise at 50% body weight and an incline level of 5 degrees, then 0 degrees), Phase 2 (skateboard exercise with incline level determined to be optimal in phase 1 and body weight at 90%, then 75%, then 50%), Phase 3 (control 4-week exercise intervention)
Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle of 0 degrees and 50% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (0 degrees) and with a specified body weight (50%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle of 5 degrees and 50% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (5 degrees) and with a specified body weight (50%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle determined to be optimal in phase 1 (either 0 or 5 degrees) and 75% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (either 0 or 5 degrees, whichever is determined during phase 1 to be optimal) and with a specified body weight (75%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle determined to be optimal in phase 1 (either 0 or 5 degrees) and 90% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (either 0 or 5 degrees, whichever is determined during phase 1 to be optimal) and with a specified body weight (90%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Control 4-week exercise intervention
This intervention occurs in phase 3. Subjects will participate in 1-hour sessions three times per week for four weeks. The control group will perform three sets of ten repetitions of the following 4 exercises, for a total of 120 repetitions: 1) standing hip abduction against green theraband resistance with upper extremity support, 2) sit to stands from chair with no upper extremity support, 3) bilateral calf raises with upper extremity support, and 4) right and left weight shifting exercises using a wobble board with upper extremity support available if needed.
Other Name: conventional physical therapy

Other: Over-ground multi-directional gait training
In the over-ground multi-directional gait protocol, the participant will walk 750 steps forward, 50 steps backward, and 200 side steps over level surfaces. The over ground gait training will focus on equalizing step length while performing multi-directional gait training.

Other: Home exercise
Home exercise consists of three sets of ten repetitions of the following three exercises to be performed on non-therapy days over the four weeks of phase 3: 1) sit to stands from chair with no upper extremity support, 2) bilateral calf raises with hand support, and 3) resisted side stepping to the non-paretic side using a green theraband with upper extremity support.

Experimental: 13
Phase 1 (skateboard exercise at 50% body weight and an incline level of 0 degrees, then 5 degrees), Phase 2 (skateboard exercise with incline level determined to be optimal in phase 1 and body weight at 50%, then 75%, then 90%), Phase 3 (experimental 4-week exercise intervention)
Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle of 0 degrees and 50% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (0 degrees) and with a specified body weight (50%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle of 5 degrees and 50% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (5 degrees) and with a specified body weight (50%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle determined to be optimal in phase 1 (either 0 or 5 degrees) and 75% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (either 0 or 5 degrees, whichever is determined during phase 1 to be optimal) and with a specified body weight (75%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle determined to be optimal in phase 1 (either 0 or 5 degrees) and 90% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (either 0 or 5 degrees, whichever is determined during phase 1 to be optimal) and with a specified body weight (90%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Experimental 4-week exercise intervention
This intervention occurs in phase 3. Subjects will participate in 1-hour sessions three times per week for four weeks. The experimental group will perform the skateboard exercise with the optimal parameters established during studies 1 and 2 (that is, an incline angle of either 0 or 5 degrees and a body weight percentage of 50%, 75%, or 90%)--the forward and backward speed of the skateboard will be cued with a metronome that will set at a beats per minute that matches the foot strike cadence of someone walking at 0.7 m/s, and the magnitude of forward excursion of the skateboard will be individualized to the participant based on GAITRite® data (that is, step length of the non-paretic LE).
Other Name: Plantar flexion training

Other: Over-ground multi-directional gait training
In the over-ground multi-directional gait protocol, the participant will walk 750 steps forward, 50 steps backward, and 200 side steps over level surfaces. The over ground gait training will focus on equalizing step length while performing multi-directional gait training.

Other: Home exercise
Home exercise consists of three sets of ten repetitions of the following three exercises to be performed on non-therapy days over the four weeks of phase 3: 1) sit to stands from chair with no upper extremity support, 2) bilateral calf raises with hand support, and 3) resisted side stepping to the non-paretic side using a green theraband with upper extremity support.

Experimental: 14
Phase 1 (skateboard exercise at 50% body weight and an incline level of 0 degrees, then 5 degrees), Phase 2 (skateboard exercise with incline level determined to be optimal in phase 1 and body weight at 50%, then 90%, then 75%), Phase 3 (experimental 4-week exercise intervention)
Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle of 0 degrees and 50% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (0 degrees) and with a specified body weight (50%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle of 5 degrees and 50% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (5 degrees) and with a specified body weight (50%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle determined to be optimal in phase 1 (either 0 or 5 degrees) and 75% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (either 0 or 5 degrees, whichever is determined during phase 1 to be optimal) and with a specified body weight (75%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle determined to be optimal in phase 1 (either 0 or 5 degrees) and 90% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (either 0 or 5 degrees, whichever is determined during phase 1 to be optimal) and with a specified body weight (90%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Experimental 4-week exercise intervention
This intervention occurs in phase 3. Subjects will participate in 1-hour sessions three times per week for four weeks. The experimental group will perform the skateboard exercise with the optimal parameters established during studies 1 and 2 (that is, an incline angle of either 0 or 5 degrees and a body weight percentage of 50%, 75%, or 90%)--the forward and backward speed of the skateboard will be cued with a metronome that will set at a beats per minute that matches the foot strike cadence of someone walking at 0.7 m/s, and the magnitude of forward excursion of the skateboard will be individualized to the participant based on GAITRite® data (that is, step length of the non-paretic LE).
Other Name: Plantar flexion training

Other: Over-ground multi-directional gait training
In the over-ground multi-directional gait protocol, the participant will walk 750 steps forward, 50 steps backward, and 200 side steps over level surfaces. The over ground gait training will focus on equalizing step length while performing multi-directional gait training.

Other: Home exercise
Home exercise consists of three sets of ten repetitions of the following three exercises to be performed on non-therapy days over the four weeks of phase 3: 1) sit to stands from chair with no upper extremity support, 2) bilateral calf raises with hand support, and 3) resisted side stepping to the non-paretic side using a green theraband with upper extremity support.

Experimental: 15
Phase 1 (skateboard exercise at 50% body weight and an incline level of 0 degrees, then 5 degrees), Phase 2 (skateboard exercise with incline level determined to be optimal in phase 1 and body weight at 75%, then 50%, then 90%), Phase 3 (experimental 4-week exercise intervention)
Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle of 0 degrees and 50% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (0 degrees) and with a specified body weight (50%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle of 5 degrees and 50% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (5 degrees) and with a specified body weight (50%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle determined to be optimal in phase 1 (either 0 or 5 degrees) and 75% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (either 0 or 5 degrees, whichever is determined during phase 1 to be optimal) and with a specified body weight (75%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle determined to be optimal in phase 1 (either 0 or 5 degrees) and 90% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (either 0 or 5 degrees, whichever is determined during phase 1 to be optimal) and with a specified body weight (90%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Experimental 4-week exercise intervention
This intervention occurs in phase 3. Subjects will participate in 1-hour sessions three times per week for four weeks. The experimental group will perform the skateboard exercise with the optimal parameters established during studies 1 and 2 (that is, an incline angle of either 0 or 5 degrees and a body weight percentage of 50%, 75%, or 90%)--the forward and backward speed of the skateboard will be cued with a metronome that will set at a beats per minute that matches the foot strike cadence of someone walking at 0.7 m/s, and the magnitude of forward excursion of the skateboard will be individualized to the participant based on GAITRite® data (that is, step length of the non-paretic LE).
Other Name: Plantar flexion training

Other: Over-ground multi-directional gait training
In the over-ground multi-directional gait protocol, the participant will walk 750 steps forward, 50 steps backward, and 200 side steps over level surfaces. The over ground gait training will focus on equalizing step length while performing multi-directional gait training.

Other: Home exercise
Home exercise consists of three sets of ten repetitions of the following three exercises to be performed on non-therapy days over the four weeks of phase 3: 1) sit to stands from chair with no upper extremity support, 2) bilateral calf raises with hand support, and 3) resisted side stepping to the non-paretic side using a green theraband with upper extremity support.

Experimental: 16
Phase 1 (skateboard exercise at 50% body weight and an incline level of 0 degrees, then 5 degrees), Phase 2 (skateboard exercise with incline level determined to be optimal in phase 1 and body weight at 75%, then 90%, then 50%), Phase 3 (experimental 4-week exercise intervention)
Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle of 0 degrees and 50% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (0 degrees) and with a specified body weight (50%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle of 5 degrees and 50% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (5 degrees) and with a specified body weight (50%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle determined to be optimal in phase 1 (either 0 or 5 degrees) and 75% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (either 0 or 5 degrees, whichever is determined during phase 1 to be optimal) and with a specified body weight (75%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle determined to be optimal in phase 1 (either 0 or 5 degrees) and 90% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (either 0 or 5 degrees, whichever is determined during phase 1 to be optimal) and with a specified body weight (90%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Experimental 4-week exercise intervention
This intervention occurs in phase 3. Subjects will participate in 1-hour sessions three times per week for four weeks. The experimental group will perform the skateboard exercise with the optimal parameters established during studies 1 and 2 (that is, an incline angle of either 0 or 5 degrees and a body weight percentage of 50%, 75%, or 90%)--the forward and backward speed of the skateboard will be cued with a metronome that will set at a beats per minute that matches the foot strike cadence of someone walking at 0.7 m/s, and the magnitude of forward excursion of the skateboard will be individualized to the participant based on GAITRite® data (that is, step length of the non-paretic LE).
Other Name: Plantar flexion training

Other: Over-ground multi-directional gait training
In the over-ground multi-directional gait protocol, the participant will walk 750 steps forward, 50 steps backward, and 200 side steps over level surfaces. The over ground gait training will focus on equalizing step length while performing multi-directional gait training.

Other: Home exercise
Home exercise consists of three sets of ten repetitions of the following three exercises to be performed on non-therapy days over the four weeks of phase 3: 1) sit to stands from chair with no upper extremity support, 2) bilateral calf raises with hand support, and 3) resisted side stepping to the non-paretic side using a green theraband with upper extremity support.

Experimental: 17
Phase 1 (skateboard exercise at 50% body weight and an incline level of 0 degrees, then 5 degrees), Phase 2 (skateboard exercise with incline level determined to be optimal in phase 1 and body weight at 90%, then 50%, then 75%), Phase 3 (experimental 4-week exercise intervention)
Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle of 0 degrees and 50% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (0 degrees) and with a specified body weight (50%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle of 5 degrees and 50% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (5 degrees) and with a specified body weight (50%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle determined to be optimal in phase 1 (either 0 or 5 degrees) and 75% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (either 0 or 5 degrees, whichever is determined during phase 1 to be optimal) and with a specified body weight (75%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle determined to be optimal in phase 1 (either 0 or 5 degrees) and 90% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (either 0 or 5 degrees, whichever is determined during phase 1 to be optimal) and with a specified body weight (90%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Experimental 4-week exercise intervention
This intervention occurs in phase 3. Subjects will participate in 1-hour sessions three times per week for four weeks. The experimental group will perform the skateboard exercise with the optimal parameters established during studies 1 and 2 (that is, an incline angle of either 0 or 5 degrees and a body weight percentage of 50%, 75%, or 90%)--the forward and backward speed of the skateboard will be cued with a metronome that will set at a beats per minute that matches the foot strike cadence of someone walking at 0.7 m/s, and the magnitude of forward excursion of the skateboard will be individualized to the participant based on GAITRite® data (that is, step length of the non-paretic LE).
Other Name: Plantar flexion training

Other: Over-ground multi-directional gait training
In the over-ground multi-directional gait protocol, the participant will walk 750 steps forward, 50 steps backward, and 200 side steps over level surfaces. The over ground gait training will focus on equalizing step length while performing multi-directional gait training.

Other: Home exercise
Home exercise consists of three sets of ten repetitions of the following three exercises to be performed on non-therapy days over the four weeks of phase 3: 1) sit to stands from chair with no upper extremity support, 2) bilateral calf raises with hand support, and 3) resisted side stepping to the non-paretic side using a green theraband with upper extremity support.

Experimental: 18
Phase 1 (skateboard exercise at 50% body weight and an incline level of 0 degrees, then 5 degrees), Phase 2 (skateboard exercise with incline level determined to be optimal in phase 1 and body weight at 90%, then 75%, then 50%), Phase 3 (experimental 4-week exercise intervention)
Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle of 0 degrees and 50% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (0 degrees) and with a specified body weight (50%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle of 5 degrees and 50% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (5 degrees) and with a specified body weight (50%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle determined to be optimal in phase 1 (either 0 or 5 degrees) and 75% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (either 0 or 5 degrees, whichever is determined during phase 1 to be optimal) and with a specified body weight (75%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle determined to be optimal in phase 1 (either 0 or 5 degrees) and 90% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (either 0 or 5 degrees, whichever is determined during phase 1 to be optimal) and with a specified body weight (90%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Experimental 4-week exercise intervention
This intervention occurs in phase 3. Subjects will participate in 1-hour sessions three times per week for four weeks. The experimental group will perform the skateboard exercise with the optimal parameters established during studies 1 and 2 (that is, an incline angle of either 0 or 5 degrees and a body weight percentage of 50%, 75%, or 90%)--the forward and backward speed of the skateboard will be cued with a metronome that will set at a beats per minute that matches the foot strike cadence of someone walking at 0.7 m/s, and the magnitude of forward excursion of the skateboard will be individualized to the participant based on GAITRite® data (that is, step length of the non-paretic LE).
Other Name: Plantar flexion training

Other: Over-ground multi-directional gait training
In the over-ground multi-directional gait protocol, the participant will walk 750 steps forward, 50 steps backward, and 200 side steps over level surfaces. The over ground gait training will focus on equalizing step length while performing multi-directional gait training.

Other: Home exercise
Home exercise consists of three sets of ten repetitions of the following three exercises to be performed on non-therapy days over the four weeks of phase 3: 1) sit to stands from chair with no upper extremity support, 2) bilateral calf raises with hand support, and 3) resisted side stepping to the non-paretic side using a green theraband with upper extremity support.

Experimental: 19
Phase 1 (skateboard exercise at 50% body weight and an incline level of 5 degrees, then 0 degrees), Phase 2 (skateboard exercise with incline level determined to be optimal in phase 1 and body weight at 50%, then 75%, then 90%), Phase 3 (experimental 4-week exercise intervention)
Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle of 0 degrees and 50% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (0 degrees) and with a specified body weight (50%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle of 5 degrees and 50% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (5 degrees) and with a specified body weight (50%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle determined to be optimal in phase 1 (either 0 or 5 degrees) and 75% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (either 0 or 5 degrees, whichever is determined during phase 1 to be optimal) and with a specified body weight (75%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle determined to be optimal in phase 1 (either 0 or 5 degrees) and 90% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (either 0 or 5 degrees, whichever is determined during phase 1 to be optimal) and with a specified body weight (90%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Experimental 4-week exercise intervention
This intervention occurs in phase 3. Subjects will participate in 1-hour sessions three times per week for four weeks. The experimental group will perform the skateboard exercise with the optimal parameters established during studies 1 and 2 (that is, an incline angle of either 0 or 5 degrees and a body weight percentage of 50%, 75%, or 90%)--the forward and backward speed of the skateboard will be cued with a metronome that will set at a beats per minute that matches the foot strike cadence of someone walking at 0.7 m/s, and the magnitude of forward excursion of the skateboard will be individualized to the participant based on GAITRite® data (that is, step length of the non-paretic LE).
Other Name: Plantar flexion training

Other: Over-ground multi-directional gait training
In the over-ground multi-directional gait protocol, the participant will walk 750 steps forward, 50 steps backward, and 200 side steps over level surfaces. The over ground gait training will focus on equalizing step length while performing multi-directional gait training.

Other: Home exercise
Home exercise consists of three sets of ten repetitions of the following three exercises to be performed on non-therapy days over the four weeks of phase 3: 1) sit to stands from chair with no upper extremity support, 2) bilateral calf raises with hand support, and 3) resisted side stepping to the non-paretic side using a green theraband with upper extremity support.

Experimental: 20
Phase 1 (skateboard exercise at 50% body weight and an incline level of 5 degrees, then 0 degrees), Phase 2 (skateboard exercise with incline level determined to be optimal in phase 1 and body weight at 50%, then 90%, then 75%), Phase 3 (experimental 4-week exercise intervention)
Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle of 0 degrees and 50% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (0 degrees) and with a specified body weight (50%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle of 5 degrees and 50% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (5 degrees) and with a specified body weight (50%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle determined to be optimal in phase 1 (either 0 or 5 degrees) and 75% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (either 0 or 5 degrees, whichever is determined during phase 1 to be optimal) and with a specified body weight (75%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle determined to be optimal in phase 1 (either 0 or 5 degrees) and 90% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (either 0 or 5 degrees, whichever is determined during phase 1 to be optimal) and with a specified body weight (90%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Experimental 4-week exercise intervention
This intervention occurs in phase 3. Subjects will participate in 1-hour sessions three times per week for four weeks. The experimental group will perform the skateboard exercise with the optimal parameters established during studies 1 and 2 (that is, an incline angle of either 0 or 5 degrees and a body weight percentage of 50%, 75%, or 90%)--the forward and backward speed of the skateboard will be cued with a metronome that will set at a beats per minute that matches the foot strike cadence of someone walking at 0.7 m/s, and the magnitude of forward excursion of the skateboard will be individualized to the participant based on GAITRite® data (that is, step length of the non-paretic LE).
Other Name: Plantar flexion training

Other: Over-ground multi-directional gait training
In the over-ground multi-directional gait protocol, the participant will walk 750 steps forward, 50 steps backward, and 200 side steps over level surfaces. The over ground gait training will focus on equalizing step length while performing multi-directional gait training.

Other: Home exercise
Home exercise consists of three sets of ten repetitions of the following three exercises to be performed on non-therapy days over the four weeks of phase 3: 1) sit to stands from chair with no upper extremity support, 2) bilateral calf raises with hand support, and 3) resisted side stepping to the non-paretic side using a green theraband with upper extremity support.

Experimental: 21
Phase 1 (skateboard exercise at 50% body weight and an incline level of 5 degrees, then 0 degrees), Phase 2 (skateboard exercise with incline level determined to be optimal in phase 1 and body weight at 75%, then 50%, then 90%), Phase 3 (experimental 4-week exercise intervention)
Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle of 0 degrees and 50% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (0 degrees) and with a specified body weight (50%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle of 5 degrees and 50% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (5 degrees) and with a specified body weight (50%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle determined to be optimal in phase 1 (either 0 or 5 degrees) and 75% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (either 0 or 5 degrees, whichever is determined during phase 1 to be optimal) and with a specified body weight (75%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle determined to be optimal in phase 1 (either 0 or 5 degrees) and 90% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (either 0 or 5 degrees, whichever is determined during phase 1 to be optimal) and with a specified body weight (90%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Experimental 4-week exercise intervention
This intervention occurs in phase 3. Subjects will participate in 1-hour sessions three times per week for four weeks. The experimental group will perform the skateboard exercise with the optimal parameters established during studies 1 and 2 (that is, an incline angle of either 0 or 5 degrees and a body weight percentage of 50%, 75%, or 90%)--the forward and backward speed of the skateboard will be cued with a metronome that will set at a beats per minute that matches the foot strike cadence of someone walking at 0.7 m/s, and the magnitude of forward excursion of the skateboard will be individualized to the participant based on GAITRite® data (that is, step length of the non-paretic LE).
Other Name: Plantar flexion training

Other: Over-ground multi-directional gait training
In the over-ground multi-directional gait protocol, the participant will walk 750 steps forward, 50 steps backward, and 200 side steps over level surfaces. The over ground gait training will focus on equalizing step length while performing multi-directional gait training.

Other: Home exercise
Home exercise consists of three sets of ten repetitions of the following three exercises to be performed on non-therapy days over the four weeks of phase 3: 1) sit to stands from chair with no upper extremity support, 2) bilateral calf raises with hand support, and 3) resisted side stepping to the non-paretic side using a green theraband with upper extremity support.

Experimental: 22
Phase 1 (skateboard exercise at 50% body weight and an incline level of 5 degrees, then 0 degrees), Phase 2 (skateboard exercise with incline level determined to be optimal in phase 1 and body weight at 75%, then 90%, then 50%), Phase 3 (experimental 4-week exercise intervention)
Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle of 0 degrees and 50% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (0 degrees) and with a specified body weight (50%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle of 5 degrees and 50% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (5 degrees) and with a specified body weight (50%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle determined to be optimal in phase 1 (either 0 or 5 degrees) and 75% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (either 0 or 5 degrees, whichever is determined during phase 1 to be optimal) and with a specified body weight (75%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle determined to be optimal in phase 1 (either 0 or 5 degrees) and 90% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (either 0 or 5 degrees, whichever is determined during phase 1 to be optimal) and with a specified body weight (90%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Experimental 4-week exercise intervention
This intervention occurs in phase 3. Subjects will participate in 1-hour sessions three times per week for four weeks. The experimental group will perform the skateboard exercise with the optimal parameters established during studies 1 and 2 (that is, an incline angle of either 0 or 5 degrees and a body weight percentage of 50%, 75%, or 90%)--the forward and backward speed of the skateboard will be cued with a metronome that will set at a beats per minute that matches the foot strike cadence of someone walking at 0.7 m/s, and the magnitude of forward excursion of the skateboard will be individualized to the participant based on GAITRite® data (that is, step length of the non-paretic LE).
Other Name: Plantar flexion training

Other: Over-ground multi-directional gait training
In the over-ground multi-directional gait protocol, the participant will walk 750 steps forward, 50 steps backward, and 200 side steps over level surfaces. The over ground gait training will focus on equalizing step length while performing multi-directional gait training.

Other: Home exercise
Home exercise consists of three sets of ten repetitions of the following three exercises to be performed on non-therapy days over the four weeks of phase 3: 1) sit to stands from chair with no upper extremity support, 2) bilateral calf raises with hand support, and 3) resisted side stepping to the non-paretic side using a green theraband with upper extremity support.

Experimental: 23
Phase 1 (skateboard exercise at 50% body weight and an incline level of 5 degrees, then 0 degrees), Phase 2 (skateboard exercise with incline level determined to be optimal in phase 1 and body weight at 90%, then 50%, then 75%), Phase 3 (experimental 4-week exercise intervention)
Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle of 0 degrees and 50% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (0 degrees) and with a specified body weight (50%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle of 5 degrees and 50% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (5 degrees) and with a specified body weight (50%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle determined to be optimal in phase 1 (either 0 or 5 degrees) and 75% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (either 0 or 5 degrees, whichever is determined during phase 1 to be optimal) and with a specified body weight (75%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle determined to be optimal in phase 1 (either 0 or 5 degrees) and 90% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (either 0 or 5 degrees, whichever is determined during phase 1 to be optimal) and with a specified body weight (90%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Experimental 4-week exercise intervention
This intervention occurs in phase 3. Subjects will participate in 1-hour sessions three times per week for four weeks. The experimental group will perform the skateboard exercise with the optimal parameters established during studies 1 and 2 (that is, an incline angle of either 0 or 5 degrees and a body weight percentage of 50%, 75%, or 90%)--the forward and backward speed of the skateboard will be cued with a metronome that will set at a beats per minute that matches the foot strike cadence of someone walking at 0.7 m/s, and the magnitude of forward excursion of the skateboard will be individualized to the participant based on GAITRite® data (that is, step length of the non-paretic LE).
Other Name: Plantar flexion training

Other: Over-ground multi-directional gait training
In the over-ground multi-directional gait protocol, the participant will walk 750 steps forward, 50 steps backward, and 200 side steps over level surfaces. The over ground gait training will focus on equalizing step length while performing multi-directional gait training.

Other: Home exercise
Home exercise consists of three sets of ten repetitions of the following three exercises to be performed on non-therapy days over the four weeks of phase 3: 1) sit to stands from chair with no upper extremity support, 2) bilateral calf raises with hand support, and 3) resisted side stepping to the non-paretic side using a green theraband with upper extremity support.

Experimental: 24
Phase 1 (skateboard exercise at 50% body weight and an incline level of 5 degrees, then 0 degrees), Phase 2 (skateboard exercise with incline level determined to be optimal in phase 1 and body weight at 90%, then 75%, then 50%), Phase 3 (experimental 4-week exercise intervention)
Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle of 0 degrees and 50% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (0 degrees) and with a specified body weight (50%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle of 5 degrees and 50% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (5 degrees) and with a specified body weight (50%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle determined to be optimal in phase 1 (either 0 or 5 degrees) and 75% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (either 0 or 5 degrees, whichever is determined during phase 1 to be optimal) and with a specified body weight (75%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Skateboard exercise at an incline angle determined to be optimal in phase 1 (either 0 or 5 degrees) and 90% body weight
Participants will stand on a specified incline angle (either 0 or 5 degrees, whichever is determined during phase 1 to be optimal) and with a specified body weight (90%) on the paretic LE and will simultaneously move a small skateboard forward with the non-paretic LE.

Other: Experimental 4-week exercise intervention
This intervention occurs in phase 3. Subjects will participate in 1-hour sessions three times per week for four weeks. The experimental group will perform the skateboard exercise with the optimal parameters established during studies 1 and 2 (that is, an incline angle of either 0 or 5 degrees and a body weight percentage of 50%, 75%, or 90%)--the forward and backward speed of the skateboard will be cued with a metronome that will set at a beats per minute that matches the foot strike cadence of someone walking at 0.7 m/s, and the magnitude of forward excursion of the skateboard will be individualized to the participant based on GAITRite® data (that is, step length of the non-paretic LE).
Other Name: Plantar flexion training

Other: Over-ground multi-directional gait training
In the over-ground multi-directional gait protocol, the participant will walk 750 steps forward, 50 steps backward, and 200 side steps over level surfaces. The over ground gait training will focus on equalizing step length while performing multi-directional gait training.

Other: Home exercise
Home exercise consists of three sets of ten repetitions of the following three exercises to be performed on non-therapy days over the four weeks of phase 3: 1) sit to stands from chair with no upper extremity support, 2) bilateral calf raises with hand support, and 3) resisted side stepping to the non-paretic side using a green theraband with upper extremity support.




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Step length asymmetry ratio as assessed by the GAITRite® [ Time Frame: baseline, 6 weeks (relative to the phase 3 intervention) ]
    The step length asymmetry ratio will be calculated by dividing the paretic step length by non-paretic step lengths. The magnitude of the ratio indicates the nature of the asymmetry, with symmetrical gait defined as step length ratio of 0.9-1.1, and asymmetrical gait where the non-paretic step lengths are longer than the paretic step lengths with any step length ratio greater than 1.1.

  2. Muscle activity of the medial gastrocnemius as assessed by surface EMG [ Time Frame: on the 1 day of the phase 1 intervention ]
    Muscle activity of the medial gastrocnemius will be assessed using surface EMG (Delsys Trigno EMG system, Boston, MA, USA). The EMG instrument will be placed on the muscle belly of medial gastrocnemius muscle in the paretic lower extremity (LE).

  3. Muscle activity of the soleus as assessed by surface EMG [ Time Frame: on the 1 day of the phase 1 intervention ]
    Muscle activity of the medial gastrocnemius will be assessed using surface EMG (Delsys Trigno EMG system, Boston, MA, USA). The EMG instrument will be placed on the muscle belly of soleus muscle in the paretic lower extremity (LE).

  4. Plantar flexion torque as assessed by isokinetic dynamometry [ Time Frame: baseline, 6 weeks (relative to the phase 3 intervention) ]
    Peak plantar flexion torque will be acquired using an isokinetic dynamometer(Biodex Medical Systems, Shirely, New York, USA). Calibration of the Biodex® will be performed prior to the assessment of each individual. For each participant, the plantar flexors will be warmed-up on a LE ergometer for 10 minutes prior to testing. The participant will be fully secured to prevent compensatory behaviors from trunk or hips that may influence results. A pre-speed warm up on the Biodex of three submaximal repetitions and one maximal repetition will be conducted prior to testing so the participant understands what these repetitions feel like. The angular velocity will be set a 60°/second, five repetitions will be performed, and the peak torque of the plantar flexors will be collected.

  5. Muscle activity of the medial gastrocnemius as assessed by surface EMG [ Time Frame: on the 1 day of the phase 2 intervention ]
    Muscle activity of the medial gastrocnemius will be assessed using surface EMG (Delsys Trigno EMG system, Boston, MA, USA). The EMG instrument will be placed on the muscle belly of medial gastrocnemius muscle in the paretic lower extremity (LE).

  6. Muscle activity of the soleus as assessed by surface EMG [ Time Frame: on the 1 day of the phase 2 intervention ]
    Muscle activity of the medial gastrocnemius will be assessed using surface EMG (Delsys Trigno EMG system, Boston, MA, USA). The EMG instrument will be placed on the muscle belly of soleus muscle in the paretic lower extremity (LE).


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Gait speed as assessed by the GAITRite® [ Time Frame: baseline, 6 weeks (relative to the phase 3 intervention) ]
    Self-selected gait speed will be acquired using the GAITRite®.

  2. Muscle activity of the medial gastrocnemius as assessed by surface EMG [ Time Frame: baseline, 6 weeks (relative to the phase 3 intervention) ]
    Muscle activity of the medial gastrocnemius will be assessed using surface EMG (Delsys Trigno EMG system, Boston, MA, USA). The EMG instrument will be placed on the muscle belly of medial gastrocnemius muscle in the paretic lower extremity (LE).

  3. Muscle activity of the soleus as assessed by surface EMG [ Time Frame: baseline, 6 weeks (relative to the phase 3 intervention) ]
    Muscle activity of the medial gastrocnemius will be assessed using surface EMG (Delsys Trigno EMG system, Boston, MA, USA). The EMG instrument will be placed on the muscle belly of soleus muscle in the paretic lower extremity (LE).

  4. Quality of life as assessed by the Stroke Impact Scale [ Time Frame: baseline, 6 weeks (relative to the phase 3 intervention) ]
    The physical domain of the Stroke Impact Scale will used to determine quality of life. The Stroke Impact Scale is a self-report measure designed to capture eight domains of health status. The physical domain has nine items that are rated using a 5 point Likert scale in terms of how difficult certain physical tasks are. The domains are scored separately using a transformed scale formula: [(raw score - lowest possible raw score) / highest possible raw score] x 100. A composite score will be assessed.



Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.


Layout table for eligibility information
Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Must be able to perform five times sit to stand test without the use of upper extremities
  • Must have 10 degrees of passive ankle dorsiflexion measured in standing
  • Must be able to walk with supervision level assistance with no assistive device

Exclusion criteria:

  • Currently receiving physical therapy
  • History of orthopedic ankle instability
  • Lacking knee extension to neutral
  • Unable to understand English
  • Unable to follow multi-step commands
  • History of orthopedic pathology that prevents completion of experimental condition
  • Pain with weight bearing on paretic LE
  • Received Botox to the plantar flexors within the last three months or phenol injections within the last six months
  • Walk with a longer nonparetic step length than paretic step length

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT03548090


Contacts
Layout table for location contacts
Contact: Daniel P Wingard, DPT 713-383-5675 Daniel.Wingard@uth.tmc.edu

Locations
Layout table for location information
United States, Texas
The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston Recruiting
Houston, Texas, United States, 77030
Contact: Daniel P Wingard, DPT    713-383-5675    Daniel.Wingard@uth.tmc.edu   
Sponsors and Collaborators
The University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston
Texas Woman's University
Investigators
Layout table for investigator information
Principal Investigator: Daniel P Wingard, DPT The University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston

Layout table for additonal information
Responsible Party: Daniel Wingard, Physical therapist, The University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03548090     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: HSC-MH-17-0284
First Posted: June 7, 2018    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: April 18, 2019
Last Verified: April 2019

Layout table for additional information
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: No
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No

Keywords provided by Daniel Wingard, The University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston:
stroke rehabilitation
walking limitations
gait rehabilitation

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Layout table for MeSH terms
Stroke
Gait Disorders, Neurologic
Cerebrovascular Disorders
Brain Diseases
Central Nervous System Diseases
Nervous System Diseases
Vascular Diseases
Cardiovascular Diseases
Neurologic Manifestations
Signs and Symptoms