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Different Loop Gain Phenotypes in Patients With Chronic Systolic Heart Failure and Periodic Breathing

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT03532412
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : May 22, 2018
Last Update Posted : May 22, 2018
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Wissenschaftliches Institut Bethanien e.V

Brief Summary:

Central sleep apnoea (CSA) is common in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HFrEF). Various trials have shown a prevalence of 21 - 37% in this group of people. Up to 66% of patients with CSA and HFrEF present with periodic breathing (PB), which is considered being a marker of HF severity and poor prognosis. Brack et al. summarized data from cohorts, longitudinal studies and retrospective analyses showing an independently increased risk of death in HF patients with PB (HR 2.1-5.7 in five of seven studies). Furthermore, PB in HF patients is known to reduce quality of life and exercise performance and to increase sympathetic nerve activity as well as the probability of malignant cardiac arrhythmias.

The pathogenesis of PB is characterized by an instability of ventilatory drive. The level of carbon dioxide (CO2) in blood and cerebrospinal fluid correlates linearly with minute ventilation. A high level of CO2 increases ventilation while hypocapnia dampens it. This control theory is based on the loop gain (LG), which represents the sensitivity and reactivity of the ventilatory system and comprises three components: The plant gain defines the capacity of the system to change PaCO2 in response to a change in ventilation (metabolic response). It is influenced by the lung volume as well as the anatomy of the thorax and the upper airways. The feedback gain is defined by the chemoreceptor responsiveness in reaction to blood gas changes. The controller gain is represented by the respiratory control center in the brain stem and defines the capacity of the system to change ventilation in response to a change in PaCO2 (ventilatory response).

Sands et al. proposed and validated a mathematical model based on the ventilatory cycle pattern that quantifies the feedback loop. The ratio of ventilatory and cycle duration within the PB pattern is defined as the duty ratio (DR), which is the basis to calculate the LG. Any temporary breathing disturbance causing a PB pattern with a LG < 1 stabilizes within a few breathing cycles. A LG > 1 represents an unstable ventilatory response and slight changes of CO2 are accompanied by overshooting and undershooting of the ventilation. In that case, the polysomnography shows the typical pattern of waxing and waning of the tidal volume and effort.

HF patients typically present with an increased LG due to an impaired left ventricular function and a hyperstimulation of pulmonary vagal receptors. Furthermore, Khoo showed an increased chemosensitivity (controller gain) as well as a decreased ventilatory capacity (plant gain) in this group of people.

Sands and colleagues characterized PB considering the mean LG derived from several ventilatory cycles during non-REM sleep. This retrospective study of PB in HFrEF patients addresses the following questions:

  1. Is a single LG value appropriate to characterize the individual PB?
  2. Does the LG depend on sleep stage and body position?
  3. Does the intraindividual LG variability allow for the discrimination of different PB phenotypes and, if so, do these phenotypes differ in further characteristics?

Condition or disease
Periodic Breathing

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Study Type : Observational
Actual Enrollment : 12 participants
Observational Model: Cohort
Time Perspective: Retrospective
Official Title: Different Loop Gain Phenotypes in Patients With Chronic Systolic Heart Failure and Periodic Breathing
Actual Study Start Date : June 28, 2016
Actual Primary Completion Date : November 14, 2016
Actual Study Completion Date : November 14, 2016

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

MedlinePlus related topics: Heart Failure

Systolic heart failure with predominant central sleep apnea and periodic breathing

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Loop Gain [ Time Frame: During one day of diagnostic polysomnography ]
    Mathematically determined loop gain of periodic breathing according to Sands et al. [10] based on diagnostic polysomnography

Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   Child, Adult, Older Adult
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Sampling Method:   Probability Sample
Study Population
Patients admitted to the sleep lab for diagnostic polysomnography.

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Systolic heart failure with left-ventricular ejection fraction <45%
  • Apnea-Hypopnea index >15 per hour as determined by diagnostic polysomnography
  • Predominant central sleep apnea as defined by >50% central respiratory events

Exclusion Criteria:

  • <50 evaluable respiratory events for loop gain analysis during diagnostic polysomnography

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT03532412

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Wissenschaftliches Institut Bethanien für Pneumologie e.V.
Solingen, Germany, 42699
Sponsors and Collaborators
Wissenschaftliches Institut Bethanien e.V
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Principal Investigator: Winfried J Randerath, Prof. Dr. Director

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Responsible Party: Wissenschaftliches Institut Bethanien e.V Identifier: NCT03532412    
Other Study ID Numbers: WI_LoopGain
First Posted: May 22, 2018    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: May 22, 2018
Last Verified: May 2018
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: No

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Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: No
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No
Keywords provided by Wissenschaftliches Institut Bethanien e.V:
Polysomnography, Sleep apnea, Central sleep apnea
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Respiratory Aspiration
Heart Failure
Heart Failure, Systolic
Heart Diseases
Cardiovascular Diseases
Respiration Disorders
Respiratory Tract Diseases
Pathologic Processes