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Chronic Malnutrition and Oral Health Status in Children Aged One to Five Years

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
 
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03529500
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : May 18, 2018
Last Update Posted : May 18, 2018
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Sandra Kalil Bussadori, University of Nove de Julho

Brief Summary:
Malnutrition is a public health problem that can exert a negative impact on the general and oral health of children. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of chronic malnutrition on the oral health of children aged one to five years. An observational, analytical, cross-sectional study was conducted at the Nutritional Recovery Center and involved 82 children between 12 and 71 months of age. Nutritional status was evaluated using anthropometric indicators and oral health status was measured using the dmft index. Non-stimulated saliva was collected. Flow rate and buffering capacity was then measured with the aid of a pH meter.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment
Malnutrition, Child Diagnostic Test: Caries detection - dmtf index Diagnostic Test: Saliva flow rate Diagnostic Test: Saliva Buffering Capacity

Detailed Description:
Malnutrition is a public health problem that can exert a negative impact on the general and oral health of children. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of chronic malnutrition on the oral health of children aged one to five years. An observational, analytical, cross-sectional study was conducted at the Nutritional Recovery Center and involved 82 children between 12 and 71 months of age. Nutritional status was evaluated using anthropometric indicators. The children were weighed on a previously calibrated electronic scale (capacity: 150 kg; precision: 100 g) barefoot and wearing light clothing in the presence of the mother or caregiver. Height was determined using a non-flexible metric tape (maximum length: 2 m; precision: 0.1 cm). Each measurement was made twice and the mean was used for the calculation height for age, weight for height and weight for age. The guidelines of the World Health Organization, were the reference for the evaluation of nutritional status. Oral health status was measured using the dmft index. The criteria adopted for the determination of prevalence followed by guidelines of the Oral Health Surveys - Basic Methods, 4th edition - described in the examiner's manual and annotator's manual produced by the coordination team of the Brazil Oral Health Project. Non-stimulated saliva was collected and Flow rate and buffering capacity was then measured with the aid of a pH meter. The salivary flow volume was calculated and expressed as ml/min. The following categories were considered in the analysis of salivary flow: < 0.1 ml/min = xerostomia; 0.1 to 0.6 ml/min = very low flow; 0.7 to 0.9 mL/min low flow; 1.0 to 2.0 ml/min = normal flow; and > 2.0 ml/min = high flow. The following categories were considered: ≥ 5.5 = very good buffering capacity; 5.4 to 5.0 = good buffering capacity; 4.9 to 4.5 = medium good buffering capacity; 4.4 to 4.0 = low buffering capacity; and ≤ 3.9 very low buffering capacity.

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Study Type : Observational
Actual Enrollment : 82 participants
Observational Model: Cohort
Time Perspective: Cross-Sectional
Official Title: Chronic Malnutrition and Oral Health Status in Children Aged One to Five Years
Actual Study Start Date : February 2, 2017
Actual Primary Completion Date : April 27, 2017
Actual Study Completion Date : July 27, 2017

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine


Group/Cohort Intervention/treatment
Adequate nutritional status
Dental caries experience was recorded using the dmft index. Active visible white spots were also recorded. Samples of non-stimulated saliva were collected from the participants for five minutes. The salivary flow volume was calculated and expressed as ml/min. After the measurement of salivary flow, an aliquot of 1 ml was transferred to a test tube with 3 ml of hydrochloric acid (HCl 5 mM) for titration and the determination of salivary buffering capacity (SBC).
Diagnostic Test: Caries detection - dmtf index

Dental caries experience was recorded using the dmft index, which was employed following the recommendations of the WHO to establish the prevalence and severity of caries. Active visible white spots were also recorded. The examinations were performed in duplicate for each child with the aim of establishing inter-examiner agreement using the Kappa statistic which demonstrated good agreement (K = 0.81).

The criteria adopted for the determination of prevalence followed by guidelines of the Oral Health Surveys - Basic Methods, 4th edition (WHO, 1997) described in the examiner's manual and annotator's manual produced by the coordination team of the Brazil Oral Health Project. The severity and prevalence of dental caries were determined based on the dmft index.


Diagnostic Test: Saliva flow rate
Samples of non-stimulated saliva were collected from the participants for five minutes using two aspirator tubes connected to a 15-ml Falcon tube. One aspirator tube was positioned under the child's tongue and the other was attached to the aspirator device. After five minutes, the amount of saliva was measured for the determination of salivary flow. Collections were performed between 9 and 11 am and the time of the last meal was recorded. At least a one-hour interval was required between the last meal and the collection of the saliva sample. The volume of saliva was measured. The salivary flow volume was calculated and expressed as ml/min. The following categories were considered in the analysis of salivary flow: < 0.1 ml/min = xerostomia; 0.1 to 0.6 ml/min = very low flow; 0.7 to 0.9 mL/min low flow; 1.0 to 2.0 ml/min = normal flow; and > 2.0 ml/min = high flow.

Diagnostic Test: Saliva Buffering Capacity
an aliquot of 1 ml was transferred to a test tube with 3 ml of hydrochloric acid (HCl 5 mM) for titration and the determination of salivary buffering capacity (SBC). The saliva/acid solution was shaken in a q 220 vortex tube agitator (Quimis, Diadema, SP, Brazil) for 15 seconds. Next, pH was determined in a portable pH meter (KASVI K39-0014P, Curitiba, PR, Brazil) for the determination of the SBC. The following categories were considered: ≥ 5.5 = very good buffering capacity; 5.4 to 5.0 = good buffering capacity; 4.9 to 4.5 = medium good buffering capacity; 4.4 to 4.0 = low buffering capacity; and ≤ 3.9 very low buffering capacity.

Mild malnutrition
Dental caries experience was recorded using the dmft index. Active visible white spots were also recorded. Samples of non-stimulated saliva were collected from the participants for five minutes. The salivary flow volume was calculated and expressed as ml/min. After the measurement of salivary flow, an aliquot of 1 ml was transferred to a test tube with 3 ml of hydrochloric acid (HCl 5 mM) for titration and the determination of salivary buffering capacity (SBC).
Diagnostic Test: Caries detection - dmtf index

Dental caries experience was recorded using the dmft index, which was employed following the recommendations of the WHO to establish the prevalence and severity of caries. Active visible white spots were also recorded. The examinations were performed in duplicate for each child with the aim of establishing inter-examiner agreement using the Kappa statistic which demonstrated good agreement (K = 0.81).

The criteria adopted for the determination of prevalence followed by guidelines of the Oral Health Surveys - Basic Methods, 4th edition (WHO, 1997) described in the examiner's manual and annotator's manual produced by the coordination team of the Brazil Oral Health Project. The severity and prevalence of dental caries were determined based on the dmft index.


Diagnostic Test: Saliva flow rate
Samples of non-stimulated saliva were collected from the participants for five minutes using two aspirator tubes connected to a 15-ml Falcon tube. One aspirator tube was positioned under the child's tongue and the other was attached to the aspirator device. After five minutes, the amount of saliva was measured for the determination of salivary flow. Collections were performed between 9 and 11 am and the time of the last meal was recorded. At least a one-hour interval was required between the last meal and the collection of the saliva sample. The volume of saliva was measured. The salivary flow volume was calculated and expressed as ml/min. The following categories were considered in the analysis of salivary flow: < 0.1 ml/min = xerostomia; 0.1 to 0.6 ml/min = very low flow; 0.7 to 0.9 mL/min low flow; 1.0 to 2.0 ml/min = normal flow; and > 2.0 ml/min = high flow.

Diagnostic Test: Saliva Buffering Capacity
an aliquot of 1 ml was transferred to a test tube with 3 ml of hydrochloric acid (HCl 5 mM) for titration and the determination of salivary buffering capacity (SBC). The saliva/acid solution was shaken in a q 220 vortex tube agitator (Quimis, Diadema, SP, Brazil) for 15 seconds. Next, pH was determined in a portable pH meter (KASVI K39-0014P, Curitiba, PR, Brazil) for the determination of the SBC. The following categories were considered: ≥ 5.5 = very good buffering capacity; 5.4 to 5.0 = good buffering capacity; 4.9 to 4.5 = medium good buffering capacity; 4.4 to 4.0 = low buffering capacity; and ≤ 3.9 very low buffering capacity.

Moderate malnutrition
Dental caries experience was recorded using the dmft index. Active visible white spots were also recorded. Samples of non-stimulated saliva were collected from the participants for five minutes. The salivary flow volume was calculated and expressed as ml/min. After the measurement of salivary flow, an aliquot of 1 ml was transferred to a test tube with 3 ml of hydrochloric acid (HCl 5 mM) for titration and the determination of salivary buffering capacity (SBC).
Diagnostic Test: Caries detection - dmtf index

Dental caries experience was recorded using the dmft index, which was employed following the recommendations of the WHO to establish the prevalence and severity of caries. Active visible white spots were also recorded. The examinations were performed in duplicate for each child with the aim of establishing inter-examiner agreement using the Kappa statistic which demonstrated good agreement (K = 0.81).

The criteria adopted for the determination of prevalence followed by guidelines of the Oral Health Surveys - Basic Methods, 4th edition (WHO, 1997) described in the examiner's manual and annotator's manual produced by the coordination team of the Brazil Oral Health Project. The severity and prevalence of dental caries were determined based on the dmft index.


Diagnostic Test: Saliva flow rate
Samples of non-stimulated saliva were collected from the participants for five minutes using two aspirator tubes connected to a 15-ml Falcon tube. One aspirator tube was positioned under the child's tongue and the other was attached to the aspirator device. After five minutes, the amount of saliva was measured for the determination of salivary flow. Collections were performed between 9 and 11 am and the time of the last meal was recorded. At least a one-hour interval was required between the last meal and the collection of the saliva sample. The volume of saliva was measured. The salivary flow volume was calculated and expressed as ml/min. The following categories were considered in the analysis of salivary flow: < 0.1 ml/min = xerostomia; 0.1 to 0.6 ml/min = very low flow; 0.7 to 0.9 mL/min low flow; 1.0 to 2.0 ml/min = normal flow; and > 2.0 ml/min = high flow.

Diagnostic Test: Saliva Buffering Capacity
an aliquot of 1 ml was transferred to a test tube with 3 ml of hydrochloric acid (HCl 5 mM) for titration and the determination of salivary buffering capacity (SBC). The saliva/acid solution was shaken in a q 220 vortex tube agitator (Quimis, Diadema, SP, Brazil) for 15 seconds. Next, pH was determined in a portable pH meter (KASVI K39-0014P, Curitiba, PR, Brazil) for the determination of the SBC. The following categories were considered: ≥ 5.5 = very good buffering capacity; 5.4 to 5.0 = good buffering capacity; 4.9 to 4.5 = medium good buffering capacity; 4.4 to 4.0 = low buffering capacity; and ≤ 3.9 very low buffering capacity.

Severe malnutrition
Dental caries experience was recorded using the dmft index. Active visible white spots were also recorded. Samples of non-stimulated saliva were collected from the participants for five minutes. The salivary flow volume was calculated and expressed as ml/min. After the measurement of salivary flow, an aliquot of 1 ml was transferred to a test tube with 3 ml of hydrochloric acid (HCl 5 mM) for titration and the determination of salivary buffering capacity (SBC).
Diagnostic Test: Caries detection - dmtf index

Dental caries experience was recorded using the dmft index, which was employed following the recommendations of the WHO to establish the prevalence and severity of caries. Active visible white spots were also recorded. The examinations were performed in duplicate for each child with the aim of establishing inter-examiner agreement using the Kappa statistic which demonstrated good agreement (K = 0.81).

The criteria adopted for the determination of prevalence followed by guidelines of the Oral Health Surveys - Basic Methods, 4th edition (WHO, 1997) described in the examiner's manual and annotator's manual produced by the coordination team of the Brazil Oral Health Project. The severity and prevalence of dental caries were determined based on the dmft index.


Diagnostic Test: Saliva flow rate
Samples of non-stimulated saliva were collected from the participants for five minutes using two aspirator tubes connected to a 15-ml Falcon tube. One aspirator tube was positioned under the child's tongue and the other was attached to the aspirator device. After five minutes, the amount of saliva was measured for the determination of salivary flow. Collections were performed between 9 and 11 am and the time of the last meal was recorded. At least a one-hour interval was required between the last meal and the collection of the saliva sample. The volume of saliva was measured. The salivary flow volume was calculated and expressed as ml/min. The following categories were considered in the analysis of salivary flow: < 0.1 ml/min = xerostomia; 0.1 to 0.6 ml/min = very low flow; 0.7 to 0.9 mL/min low flow; 1.0 to 2.0 ml/min = normal flow; and > 2.0 ml/min = high flow.

Diagnostic Test: Saliva Buffering Capacity
an aliquot of 1 ml was transferred to a test tube with 3 ml of hydrochloric acid (HCl 5 mM) for titration and the determination of salivary buffering capacity (SBC). The saliva/acid solution was shaken in a q 220 vortex tube agitator (Quimis, Diadema, SP, Brazil) for 15 seconds. Next, pH was determined in a portable pH meter (KASVI K39-0014P, Curitiba, PR, Brazil) for the determination of the SBC. The following categories were considered: ≥ 5.5 = very good buffering capacity; 5.4 to 5.0 = good buffering capacity; 4.9 to 4.5 = medium good buffering capacity; 4.4 to 4.0 = low buffering capacity; and ≤ 3.9 very low buffering capacity.




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Weight Measurement [ Time Frame: 4 weeks ]
    The children were weighed on a previously calibrated electronic scale (capacity: 150 kg; precision: 100 g) barefoot and wearing light clothing in the presence of the mother or caregiver.

  2. Height Measurement [ Time Frame: 4 weeks ]
    Height was determined using a non-flexible metric tape (maximum length: 2 m; precision: 0.1 cm).


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Evaluation of dental caries [ Time Frame: 2 weeks ]
    Dental Caries - dental caries experience was recorded using the dmft index, which was employed following the recommendations of the WHO (WHO, 2007) to establish the prevalence and severity of caries.

  2. Evaluation of saliva flow rate [ Time Frame: 4 weeks ]
    saliva flow rate - The salivary flow volume was calculated and expressed as ml/min. The following categories were considered in the analysis of salivary flow: < 0.1 ml/min = xerostomia; 0.1 to 0.6 ml/min = very low flow; 0.7 to 0.9 mL/min low flow; 1.0 to 2.0 ml/min = normal flow; and > 2.0 ml/min = high flow.

  3. Evaluation of saliva buffering capacity [ Time Frame: 4 weeks ]
    salivary buffering capacity - an aliquot of 1 ml was transferred to a test tube with 3 ml of hydrochloric acid (HCl 5 mM) for titration and the determination of salivary buffering capacity (SBC). The saliva/acid solution was shaken in a q 220 vortex tube agitator (Quimis, Diadema, SP, Brazil) for 15 seconds. Next, pH was determined in a portable pH meter (KASVI K39-0014P, Curitiba, PR, Brazil) for the determination of the SBC. The following categories were considered: ≥ 5.5 = very good buffering capacity; 5.4 to 5.0 = good buffering capacity; 4.9 to 4.5 = medium good buffering capacity; 4.4 to 4.0 = low buffering capacity; and ≤ 3.9 very low buffering capacity .


Biospecimen Retention:   None Retained
saliva


Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Layout table for eligibility information
Ages Eligible for Study:   12 Months to 71 Months   (Child)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes
Sampling Method:   Non-Probability Sample
Study Population
This cross-sectional study will use a sample of children aged 12 to 71 months of the 7th Administrative Region of Maceió. This region is one of the poorest region in Maceió. The children's parents/guardians will be interviewed at the Center for Educational and Nutrition Recovery (CREN) in the city of Maceió, state of Alagoas, Brazil. The sample size was estimated considering a prevalence of malnutrition of about 20% in children under 6 years old, with statistical power of 80% and 95% significance, resulting in a sample of 100 children.
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

Children aged one to five years enrolled at the Center for Educational and Nutrition Recovery.

Statement of informed consent signed by parents/guardians. Clinical diagnosis of malnutrition.

Exclusion Criteria:

Children aged one to five years not enrolled at the Center for Educational and Nutrition Recovery.

Children whose Parents/guardians did not sign a statement of informed consent.


Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT03529500


Locations
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Brazil
Nutritional Recovery Center
Maceió, Alagoas, Brazil, 57072-740
Sponsors and Collaborators
University of Nove de Julho
Publications of Results:

Other Publications:

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Responsible Party: Sandra Kalil Bussadori, Clinical Professor, University of Nove de Julho
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03529500    
Other Study ID Numbers: Malnutrition and oral health
First Posted: May 18, 2018    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: May 18, 2018
Last Verified: May 2018
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: Yes
Plan Description: All IPD will be available after publication of results.
Supporting Materials: Study Protocol
Statistical Analysis Plan (SAP)
Informed Consent Form (ICF)
Clinical Study Report (CSR)
Analytic Code
Time Frame: After results publication.
Access Criteria: Depends on the journal criteria

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Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: No
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No
Keywords provided by Sandra Kalil Bussadori, University of Nove de Julho:
dental caries
saliva
child
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Malnutrition
Child Nutrition Disorders
Nutrition Disorders