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Factor XIII and Other Biomarkers in ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (eXIST)

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT03523624
Recruitment Status : Active, not recruiting
First Posted : May 14, 2018
Last Update Posted : March 24, 2020
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Vittorio Pengo, University of Padova

Brief Summary:

In medical practice, a combination of clinical exam, electrocardiograms, circulating biomarkers, and imaging is used to gain insights on the prognosis after myocardial infarction. Novel molecular non-invasive tools are needed that help clinicians overcome the adverse events of post-myocardial infarction remodelling and thereby achieve improved therapy for its prevention.

Coagulation factor XIII (FXIII) decay has been linked to major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in patients with acute coronary syndromes. Given the correlation between both intramyocardial haemorrhage and microvascular damage with acute phase complications in ST-elevation myocardial infarction, we hypothesise that excessive FXIII decay within the first week may predict acute phase outcomes in these patients. If this holds true, FXIII determination could be used as diagnostic and prognostic tool.

Condition or disease
Factor XIII Deficiency ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction Myocardial Haemorrhage Coronary Microvascular Disease

Detailed Description:


The reduction of mortality in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is achieved by the efficacy of the current therapeutic strategies focused on an early reopening of the culprit coronary artery, by either medical or mechanical reperfusion. Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) represents the most effective way to limit infarct size and reduce transmural extension of necrosis. Although coronary artery recanalization represents the most effective way to reduce infarct size, the process of reperfusion may itself produce a series of consequences including intramyocardial haemorrhage (IMH) and microvascular injury (MVO) contributing to the 'no reflow' phenomenon. MVO is an early event followed by intramyocardial haemorrhage that plays a role later in reperfusion injury. Both luminal obstruction (microvascular damage by neutrophil plugging, platelets and emboli) and external compression (by oedema and haemorrhage) are allegedly linked with no-reflow, however, the real mechanism underlying this complex time-sensitive phenomenon remains to be fully understood. MVO and IMH in ST-elevation myocardial infarction are independent predictor of adverse left ventricle remodelling, independently of the initial infarct size, and predict MACE.

The diagnosis of no-reflow is usually made when post-procedural thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) flow is <3, or in the case of a TIMI flow of 3 when myocardial blush grade is 0 or 1, or when ST resolution within 4 h of the procedure is <70%. It can be assessed using cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) techniques, where they appear as dark zones on delayed post-contrast sequences or contrast echocardiography.

FXIII is a protransglutaminase that becomes activated by thrombin and catalyses the formation of crosslinked fibrin mesh in the final stage of the clotting cascade. Blood coagulation FXIII is thought to play a role in wound healing and tissue repair. FXIII is present in plasma, platelets, monocytes, and macrophages, all of which are involved in infarct healing. In an experimental model, mice lacking FXIII suffer from impaired wound healing and fatal rupture of the left ventricle after myocardial infarction. This phenomenon was observed in 100% of homozygous and, interestingly, in 100% of the heterozygous FXIII-knockout mice, despite a FXIII plasma level of 70%. Replenishment of FXIII during the 5-day acute and subacute period of infarct healing restored survival rates of FXIII-deficient mice to that of wild-type mice. In addition, reduced FXIII activity imaged via single photon emission computed tomography predicted adverse infarct healing after MI in mice. In contrast, increased intracardiac FXIII activity via induction of high FXIII zymogen plasma levels improved cardiac healing. Moreover, FXIII levels were significantly diminished in myocardial biopsies of human ruptured MI. In a case series of 25 patients with acute MI, a mean decrease of initially normal FXIII plasma values by 25% was reported during the first week after the ischemic event. During the first week after MI, an acute phase reduction in FXIII plasma levels has been described, with the nadir of reduction on day 3-6 after the acute event.

FXIII thus seems to mediate the formation of a well-cemented scar, reducing MVO and IMH and improve healing and left ventricle remodelling.

Aim of the study:

We will perform a prospective observational study to identify how the differences in FXIII levels in ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients relate with intramyocardial haemorrhage and microvascular damage as detected by cardiac magnetic resonance.

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Study Type : Observational
Estimated Enrollment : 150 participants
Observational Model: Cohort
Time Perspective: Prospective
Official Title: Factor XIII and Other Biomarkers in ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction
Study Start Date : November 2015
Actual Primary Completion Date : March 1, 2019
Estimated Study Completion Date : December 2020

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. FXIII decay correlation with intramyocardial haemorrhage/microvascular damage [ Time Frame: average of 6 days ]
    FXIII decay will be correlated with intramyocardial haemorrhage/microvascular damage as assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging

Biospecimen Retention:   Samples Without DNA
Plasma will be stocked for FXIII determination

Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Sampling Method:   Non-Probability Sample
Study Population
Patients that present in the Padova University Hospital Coronary Care Unit with a ST-elevation myocardial infarction will be screened

Inclusion Criteria:

  • patients with the clinical presentation of ST-elevation myocardial infarction within 12 h of symptom onset and with persistent ST-segment elevation or new or presumed new left bundle branch block and undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)

Exclusion Criteria:

  • patients with late presentation ST-elevation myocardial infarction (beyond the first 12h after onset of symptoms) or ineligible for mechanical reperfusion therapy
  • contraindications to cardiac magnetic resonance
  • pregnancy

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT03523624

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University of Padua, Cardiology Clinic
Padua, PD, Italy, 35128
Sponsors and Collaborators
University of Padova
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Responsible Party: Vittorio Pengo, Associate Professor of Cardiology, University of Padova Identifier: NCT03523624    
Other Study ID Numbers: eXIST-DCTV
First Posted: May 14, 2018    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: March 24, 2020
Last Verified: March 2020
Keywords provided by Vittorio Pengo, University of Padova:
factor XIII
intramyocardial haemorrhage
microvascular injury
cardiac magnetic resonance
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Myocardial Infarction
ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction
Microvascular Angina
Factor XIII Deficiency
Pathologic Processes
Myocardial Ischemia
Heart Diseases
Cardiovascular Diseases
Vascular Diseases
Angina Pectoris
Blood Coagulation Disorders, Inherited
Blood Coagulation Disorders
Hematologic Diseases
Coagulation Protein Disorders
Hemorrhagic Disorders
Genetic Diseases, Inborn