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Neuroactive Steroids in Acute Ischemic Stroke (Cortisol)

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03242304
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : August 8, 2017
Last Update Posted : August 8, 2017
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Sebastian Casas, Hospital Militar Central, Argentina

Brief Summary:
Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) represents an economical challenge for health systems all over the globe. Despite increasing knowledge of the pathophysiology of AIS, there is no satisfactory treatment to revert the resulting brain damage. Changes of neuroactive steroids have been found in different neurological diseases. In this regard, the investigators have previously demonstrated that old patients with AIS show changes of plasma cortisol and estradiol concentrations, in that increased steroid levels are associated with a deterioration of neurological status and a worse cognitive decline. The present study assessed in patients with AIS if changes of behavior, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nitrites (NO-2) (nitric oxide soluble metabolite) bear a relationship with the degree of hypercortisolism. To this purpose, the investigators recruited patients hospitalized at the Central Military Hospital emergency room within the first 24 hours of AIS. Subjects were divided into two groups, each one composed of 40 control subjects and 40 AIS patients, including men and women. The neurological condition was assessed using the NIHSS and the cognitive status with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA test). The emotional status was evaluated using the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), whereas the Modified Rankin Scale (MRS) was used to determine the functional condition. BDNF and NO-2 plasma levels were measured by ELISA and the Griess reaction method, respectively.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment
Ischemic Stroke Cortisol; Hypersecretion Other: Behavioral tests

Detailed Description:
Acute Ischemic Stroke (AIS) is one of the main causes of functional deterioration all over the world. Thus, 26% of patients older than 65 years still show limitations of daily activities 6 months after AIS, and 46% of these patients present cognitive deficiency of variable severity. AIS impose a burden on the way of living of patients and their families' in which depression emerges as a frequent neuropsychiatric disorder after the ischemic event. However, the occurrence of depression and other functional abnormalities on the first day following AIS is largely unknown. Neuroactive steroids have the capability to modulate in a positive or negative way the function of the nervous system. Changes in neuroactive steroid concentrations in plasma and nervous system have been described in degenerative diseases (Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis), autoimmune diseases (multiple sclerosis), epilepsy, and psychiatric disorders (depression and schizophrenia). In vulnerable regions such as the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, high cortisol exposure damages the pyramidal neurons, decreases neurogenesis and impairs memory and learning. In a previous report, the investigators have demonstrated that old patients with AIS show changes in the plasma levels of cortisol and estradiol, which associate with low cognition, worse neurological status, and poor functional performance. The present report investigated changes of cortisol, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nitrites (NO-2, nitric oxide soluble metabolites) after AIS. BDNF is a neurotrophin classically associated with learning and memory and negatively modulated by glucocorticoids, old age, and neurodegenerative diseases. In plasma, platelets are the major source of peripheral BDNF and levels of this neurotrophin are decreased in Alzheimer´s disease and depression. These disorders also show hypercortisolism and changes of cortisol dynamics suggesting that steroids, neurotrophins, and behavioral deficits may be functionally related. Regarding nitrites, cortisol treatment of human subjects significantly reduced plasma nitrate/nitrite concentrations. Therefore, considering that opposite changes occur in cortisol vs. BDNF and nitrites, the investigators aimed to determine in acute AIS patients (a) changes in plasma cortisol; (b) development of clinical, behavioral and functional deficits; (c) changes in plasma BDNF and nitrites, which may predict a neurotoxic effect of the excess cortisol in the ischemic nervous system.

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Study Type : Observational
Actual Enrollment : 40 participants
Observational Model: Case-Control
Time Perspective: Prospective
Official Title: Changes in Plasma Cortisol, Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor, and Nitrites in Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke
Actual Study Start Date : April 1, 2016
Actual Primary Completion Date : December 1, 2016
Actual Study Completion Date : December 1, 2016

Group/Cohort Intervention/treatment
Control group
A control group composed of subjects without physical or psychiatric disease.
Other: Behavioral tests
We observed relationship between plasma levels of cortisol and neurological, cognitive, functional and emotional outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke.
Other Names:
  • Plasma cortisol levels quantification
  • Plasma nitrites levels quantification
  • Plasma Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor quantification

Acute Ischemic Stroke group
An AIS group composed of subjects within the first 24 hours of the neurovascular event.
Other: Behavioral tests
We observed relationship between plasma levels of cortisol and neurological, cognitive, functional and emotional outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke.
Other Names:
  • Plasma cortisol levels quantification
  • Plasma nitrites levels quantification
  • Plasma Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor quantification




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Neurological déficit [ Time Frame: Into 24 hours of Acute Ischemic Stroke ]
    The neurological state during AIS was quantified by the National Institute of Health stroke scale at the time of hospitalization (NIHSS,available at http://www.ninds.nih.gov/doctors/NIH_Stroke_Scale.pdf


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Cognition [ Time Frame: Into 24 hours of Acute Ischemic Stroke ]
    The cognitive test used was the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA test).

  2. Emotional state [ Time Frame: Into 24 hours of Acute Ischemic Stroke ]
    Patients with AIS were evaluated on the Montgomery-Asberg depression scale (MADRS)

  3. Functional dependency of daily life activities [ Time Frame: Into 24 hours of Acute Ischemic Stroke ]
    The functional state of the AIS patients was assessed by the modified Rankin scale at the time of entering the admission floor.

  4. Cortisol [ Time Frame: Into 24 hours of Acute Ischemic Stroke ]
    Plasma cortisol concentration was determined by chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA), using Team Architect i1000, Abbott Laboratories, Middletown, USA.

  5. Quantification of nitrites concentration (NO-2) [ Time Frame: Into 24 hours of Acute Ischemic Stroke ]
    Levels of NO-2, nitric oxide soluble metabolite (ON.) in water, were measured spectrophotometrically at 543 nm absorbance by the Griess reactio

  6. BDNF quantification in plasma [ Time Frame: Into 24 hours of Acute Ischemic Stroke ]
    Plasma BDNF concentration was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)



Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   60 Years to 90 Years   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes
Sampling Method:   Probability Sample
Study Population
The subjects were between 60 and 90 years old, and were recruited randomly and distributed in two experimental groups: 1) a control group composed of subjects without physical or psychiatric disease, 2) an AIS group composed of subjects within the first 24 hours of the neurovascular event. The individuals were distributed in such a way that each experimental group contained 10 men and 10 women. Table 1 show the inclusion and exclusion criteria used for the AIS group.
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Age between 60 and 90 years.
  • Agreeing to participate in the study.
  • Acute Ischemic Stroke of anterior vascular territory and/or posterior vascular territory whithin 24 hours of onset.
  • Nine or more points in the Glasgow Coma Scale.
  • Female patients in menopause.
  • Patients without cognitive impairment before AIS according to family reference.
  • Acceptance of the next of kin proxy in case the participant has sensory impairment.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Age <60 or > 90 years.
  • Hemorrhagic Stroke.
  • Transient ischemic attack (TIA).
  • Acute Ischemic Stroke after 24 hours of onset.
  • Hormonal replacement therapy.
  • Immunosuppressive therapy in the last month before AIS (example corticosteroids).
  • Acute infection (Example, pneumonia, urinary tract infection).
  • Diagnosis of oncologic disease in the last month before AIS.
  • Diagnosis of endocrinologic disease in the last month before AIS.
  • Acute or long-term psychiatric illness.
  • No agreement to participate in the study.
  • Eight or less points in the Glasgow Coma Scale.
  • Female patients with menstrual cycle or in the perimenopause.
  • Patients with kidney or hepatic illness.
  • Patients with cognitive impairment before AIS.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT03242304


Sponsors and Collaborators
Hospital Militar Central, Argentina
Investigators
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Principal Investigator: Sebastian M Casas, Ph.D., MD. Hospital Militar Central Cir My ¨Dr. Cosme Argerich¨

Publications of Results:

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Responsible Party: Sebastian Casas, Ph.D, M.D., Hospital Militar Central, Argentina
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03242304     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: act No. 393 of Nov 11, 2015
First Posted: August 8, 2017    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: August 8, 2017
Last Verified: August 2017
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: No

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Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: No
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Hydrocortisone
Hydrocortisone 17-butyrate 21-propionate
Hydrocortisone acetate
Hydrocortisone hemisuccinate
Stroke
Cerebral Infarction
Ischemia
Cerebrovascular Disorders
Brain Diseases
Central Nervous System Diseases
Nervous System Diseases
Vascular Diseases
Cardiovascular Diseases
Pathologic Processes
Brain Infarction
Brain Ischemia
Anti-Inflammatory Agents