Influence of Dietary Nitrate on Skin Inflammation
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|ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03183830|
Recruitment Status : Recruiting
First Posted : June 12, 2017
Last Update Posted : June 18, 2018
This study evaluates the potential anti-inflammatory effects of inorganic dietary nitrate in a model of acute inflammation relevant to cardiovascular disease (CVD).
Green leafy vegetables contain large amounts of inorganic nitrate, and research suggests that this nitrate has beneficial effects on the heart and blood vessels. The Ahluwalia Group have shown anti-inflammatory benefits of inorganic nitrate in pre-clinical models of CVD, early mechanistic studies in healthy volunteers, and in patients with hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia and those suffering acute heart attacks that translate to cardiovascular benefits. Understanding the mechanism of how this is achieved may open new therapeutic options in CVD.
The Investigators therefore wish to explore whether inorganic nitrate might alter inflammatory responses using a blister-model of acute skin inflammation. This study is a randomised control trial with parallel limbs where half of patients receive nitrate-rich beetroot juice, and the other half a nitrate-deplete placebo beetroot juice.
|Condition or disease||Intervention/treatment||Phase|
|Cardiovascular Diseases Inflammation Inflammation; Skin Inflammatory Response Nitric Oxide||Dietary Supplement: Nitrate-rich Beetroot Juice Dietary Supplement: Nitrate-deplete Beetroot Juice||Phase 1|
Nitric oxide (NO) is an important substance produced continuously by all blood vessels. It is thought to maintain health, in part, by preventing and suppressing inflammatory responses. NO is normally generated at the endothelium by a group of important enzymes called nitric oxide synthases. However, in chronic inflammatory states such as those seen in cardiovascular disease (CVD), the endothelial isoform of the enzyme becomes dysfunctional and produces less NO, and the NO that is produced is scavenged by the products of oxidative stress.
Giving NO back to the blood vessel to mediate its beneficial effects is not straightforward. However, the Ahluwalia Group have shown that dietary inorganic nitrate, both as a capsule and a dietary intervention with nitrate-rich beetroot juice, has a number of beneficial effects in CVD states. This beneficial effect is mediated through it's endogenous conversion from nitrate to nitrite in the mouth, and then from nitrite to NO via nitrite reductases within the blood vessel. The Investigators have shown benefit of inorganic nitrate in pre-clinical models of CVD, early mechanistic studies in healthy volunteers, and anti-inflammatory benefits in patients with hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia and those suffering acute heart attacks.
The Investigators wish to prospectively investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of inorganic nitrate using a cantharidin-induced blister model of acute inflammation. This allows investigation of the innate immune system's response to an acute insult and characterise the inflammatory and resolution phases. Cantharidin is commonly used as a vesicant in the treatment of plantar verrucae and molluscum contagiosum, and experimentally to study the pharmacokinetics of drugs within the interstitial space.
This will be a double-blind placebo-controlled parallel limb study supplementing 24 healthy volunteers with dietary-rich beetroot juice versus nitrate-deplete placebo juice, to investigate blister formation, and inflammatory cell recruitment and activation.
|Study Type :||Interventional (Clinical Trial)|
|Estimated Enrollment :||24 participants|
|Intervention Model:||Parallel Assignment|
|Intervention Model Description:||Double-blind randomised-control parallel two-limb study|
|Masking:||Triple (Participant, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)|
|Masking Description:||All members of the study team and volunteer participants will be blinded to treatment versus placebo arm|
|Primary Purpose:||Basic Science|
|Official Title:||A Double-blind, Randomised, Placebo-controlled Parallel Study to Investigate the Influence of Dietary Nitrate on Skin Inflammation in Healthy Volunteers|
|Actual Study Start Date :||February 2, 2017|
|Estimated Primary Completion Date :||September 2018|
|Estimated Study Completion Date :||September 2018|
Experimental: Nitrate-rich Beetroot Juice
Individuals will receive a once daily dose of dietary nitrate in the form of a beetroot juice concentrate (70mL) containing ~5-6mmol inorganic nitrate (James White Drinks, UK) for 12 +/- 2 weeks. This dose has been chosen due to several reports demonstrating efficacy in patients with cardiovascular disease.
Dietary Supplement: Nitrate-rich Beetroot Juice
The beetroot juice contains approximately 100kcal per 100mL of juice, equivalent to a glass of orange juice; the volume of juice per day for the study is 70mL. Volunteers will be informed that an average woman weighing 65kg should not consume more than 2000kcal per day, and an average man of 75kg not more than 2500kcal per day.
Placebo Comparator: Nitrate-deplete Beetroot Juice
The placebo control is an identical juice from which the nitrate anion has been removed using a standard anion exchange resin. Visually there is no detectable difference between the juices and previous spectral, ion concentration, sugar levels, ascorbate analysis and taste testing has confirmed no differences in colour and constituents. The process to extract nitrate from the juice is the same technique used to remove inorganic nitrate from general drinking water supplies, and has been approved for use by Ethics Committees. The nitrate-free juice is not considered a drug or medicine, and is classified as a foodstuff.
Dietary Supplement: Nitrate-deplete Beetroot Juice
See description of placebo juice in "Arms" for comparative information. The beetroot juice contains approximately 100kcal per 100mL of juice, equivalent to a glass of orange juice; the volume of juice per day for the study is 70mL. Volunteers will be informed that an average woman weighing 65kg should not consume more than 2000kcal per day, and an average man of 75kg not more than 2500kcal per day.
Other Name: Placebo
- Change in plasma nitrate levels [ Time Frame: 2 weeks ]Comparison of change in plasma nitrite following dietary nitrate or placebo supplementation
- Change in blister fluid leucocytes [ Time Frame: 2 weeks ]Comparison of change in blister fluid total and differential leucocyte numbers following dietary nitrate or placebo supplementation
- Change in blister fluid cytokine composition [ Time Frame: 2 weeks ]Comparison of change in blister fluid cytokine analysis following dietary nitrate or placebo supplementation
- Change in peripheral markers of inflammation [ Time Frame: 2 weeks ]Comparison of change in peripheral markers of inflammation and leucocyte count following dietary nitrate or placebo supplementation
- Change in non-invasive blood pressure measurement [ Time Frame: 2 weeks ]Comparison of change in blood pressure following dietary nitrate or placebo supplementation
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT03183830
|Contact: Prof Amrita Ahluwalia, BSc PhD||020 7882 firstname.lastname@example.org|
|Contact: Dr Christopher P Primus, MBBS BSc MRCP||020 7882 email@example.com|
|Queen Mary University of London||Recruiting|
|London, United Kingdom, EC1M 6BQ|
|Contact: Prof Amrita Ahluwalia, BSc PhD 020 7882 8377 firstname.lastname@example.org|
|Contact: Dr Christopher P Primus, MBBS BSc MRCP 020 7882 5720 email@example.com|
|Principal Investigator: Prof Amrita Ahluwalia, BSc PhD|
|Sub-Investigator: Dr Christopher P Primus, MBBS BSc MRCP|
|Sub-Investigator: Dr Krishnaraj Rathod, MBBS BMedSci MRCP|
|Sub-Investigator: Ms Sarah Duggan, MSc|
|Sub-Investigator: Dr Clement Lau, MBChB BMedSci MRCP|
|Sub-Investigator: Dr Vikas Kapil, MBBS PhD MRCP|
|Principal Investigator:||Prof Amrita Ahluwalia, BSc PhD||Queen Mary University of London|