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Examination of the Distribution of Nitrate Reducing Bacteria in the Human Oral Cavity (REBOC)

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03068962
Recruitment Status : Unknown
Verified February 2017 by Julie Lovegrove, University of Reading.
Recruitment status was:  Not yet recruiting
First Posted : March 3, 2017
Last Update Posted : March 3, 2017
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Julie Lovegrove, University of Reading

Brief Summary:
Dietary nitrate have been shown to have health benefits including lowering blood pressure (Hobbs et al, 2012), improving endothelial function and inhibiting platelet aggregation in healthy humans (Lidder & Webb, 2013). The main sources of dietary nitrate in the human diet are vegetables such as beetroot. Nitrates are converted to nitrites then nitric oxide (NO), following their reduction by commensal oral bacteria and those residing in the gastrointestinal tract (Hord, Tang, & Bryan, 2009; Lidder & Webb, 2013). A recent study has shown following elimination of oral bacteria by the use of a chlorhexidine based antiseptic mouthwash, the conversion of nitrate to nitrite is prevented and this is accompanied by a statistically significant increase in blood pressure in normotensive subjects (Kapil et al., 2013). To date, very few studies have investigated the potential role of these oral bacteria in control of blood pressure and if there are any inter and intra-individual differences in bacterial composition.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
No Dental Disease Non-smoking Other: beetroot Juice Other: Buxton water Other: antiseptic mouthwash then beetroot juice Not Applicable

Detailed Description:

Volunteers will be provided with an outline of the study and asked to complete a medical and lifestyle questionnaire (in person, email or over the phone). Potentially suitable participants will be identified and asked to attend a screening session during which the study will be explained in more detail before a consent form is signed. Anthropometric measurements will then be taken such as weight, height and blood pressure. Subjects who meet the inclusion criteria will be invited to a further screening session during which time a dentist will check for dental diseases (e.g. current dental cavities or periodontal infection). The oral bacteria samples will be collected in the morning on site at the Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences (Hugh Sinclair Unit of Human Nutrition) on four visit days (including screening visit).On the day before each study visit the volunteers will need to have a low nitrate diet, refrain from strenuous exercise and alcohol, and drink low nitrate mineral water. They will be required to fast overnight and only drink water. In the morning, they will be asked to refrain from brushing their teeth or using mouthwash.

When they arrive in the unit in the fasted state, they will then be randomised to one of three treatments:

  • Rinse mouth with low nitrate Buxton mineral water followed by holding 10 ml of beetroot juice (~6 mmol nitrate) for 5 min,
  • Rinse mouth with low nitrate Buxton mineral water followed by holding 10 ml of low nitrate mineral water in the mouth for 5 min or
  • Rinse with antiseptic mouthwash before holding 10 ml of beetroot juice in the mouth for 5 min.

After 5 mins of holding low nitrate water or beetroot juice in the mouth, they will then spit the whole mouth rinse into a sterile ice-chilled tube.

To evaluate the nitrate reduction in different areas of the oral cavity, the researchers will put filter paper squares which have been soaked in water or beetroot juice in different areas of their mouth (rear, mid and front tongue, tooth surface, buccal surface, hard palate, and sublingual). Volunteers will be required to keep the filter papers in their mouth for 90 seconds before they are removed.

Finally, the oral bacteria will be collected from the 7 sites by sliding a piece of sterile oral floss between the 2 back molars and by swabbing a micro brush along the buccal cervical margin of premolars and rear, mid, front tongue. Saliva will be obtained using a sterile cotton swab. All samples will be placed into sterile tubes (Eppendorfs). Mouth rinse will be collected in sterile ice-chilled Falcon tubes.

Volunteers will then be provided with a light breakfast before they leave the unit. Facilities will be available for participants to brush their teeth before they leave the clinical unit.

The study visits will be separated by at least 1 week.


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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Estimated Enrollment : 20 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Crossover Assignment
Masking: Single (Participant)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Examination of the Distribution of Nitrate Reducing Bacteria in the Human Oral Cavity
Estimated Study Start Date : March 2017
Estimated Primary Completion Date : September 2017
Estimated Study Completion Date : March 2018

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: beetroot juice
Rinse mouth with low nitrate Buxton mineral water followed by holding 10 ml of beetroot juice for 5 min,
Other: beetroot Juice
Beetroot Juice

Experimental: low mineral water (Buxton water)
Rinse mouth with low nitrate Buxton mineral water followed by holding 10 ml of low nitrate mineral water in the mouth for 5 min or
Other: Buxton water
natural mineral water

Experimental: antiseptic mouthwash then beetroot juice
Rinse with antiseptic mouthwash before holding 10 ml of beetroot juice in the mouth for 5 min
Other: beetroot Juice
Beetroot Juice

Other: antiseptic mouthwash then beetroot juice
Chlorhexidine glocunate




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. oral bacteria sample will be collected to Identification of nitrate reductase-positive bacteria in the oral cavity and capacity to reduce dietary nitrate [ Time Frame: 1 year ]
    In vitro method will be used to isolate the nitrate reducing bacteria then 16SrDNA sequencing will be used to identify the species of these bacteria.


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Identify the major sites in the human oral cavity which contain nitrate reducing bacteria. [ Time Frame: 1 year ]
    filter paper will be put in different sites around the oral cavity in human trial and then removed before analysis using chemiluminescence to determine nitrate and nitrite concentrations.



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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 55 Years   (Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Gender Based Eligibility:   Yes
Gender Eligibility Description:   10 men and 10 women
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Male and female
  • A signed consent form
  • Age 18-55 years
  • Non-smoking, healthy individuals
  • BMI 18.5 - 30 kg/m2

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Diagnosed with a chronic illness
  • Individuals with food allergies or allergies to medicated mouthwash or ingredients in the oral products
  • Requirements to take long-term medication active on the oral cavity or taken antibiotics within the last 3 months
  • Current diagnosis of dental caries, gingivitis, or periodontal disease or chronic oral complaints or Existing oral pathology (active caries lesions and/or periodontal disease; mucosal lesions; poor occlusion)
  • Current smoker (regular and electronic cigarettes and cigars)
  • Participating in a dietary intervention study.
  • Excessive alcohol consumption (> 21 units/wk male, >14 units/wk female)
  • Females who are pregnant or lactating
  • Reduced salivary flow (unstimulated flow less than 0.1 ml/min);
  • less than four natural (enamel) buccal surfaces of upper molars available;
  • presence of fixed or removable oral appliances (e.g., dentures, orthodontic wires)

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT03068962


Contacts
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Contact: Julie A Lovegrove, BSc, PhD 0044118378 ext 6418 j.a.lovegrove@reading.ac.uk
Contact: Hayat S Alzahrani, MSc 07496966022 h.s.alzahrani@student.reading.ac.uk

Locations
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United Kingdom
Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University of Reading Not yet recruiting
Reading, Berkshire, United Kingdom, RG6 6AP
Contact: Julie A Lovegrove, BSc, PhD    0044118 378 ext 5361    j.a.lovegrove@reading.ac.uk   
Contact: Hayat Alzahrani, MSc       h.s.alzahrani@student.reading.ac.uk   
Principal Investigator: Julie A Lovegrove, BSc, PhD         
Sub-Investigator: Hayat S Alzahrani, MSc         
Sub-Investigator: Kim G Jackson, BSc, PhD         
Sub-Investigator: Ditte A Hobbs, BSc, PhD         
Sub-Investigator: Gemma E Walton, BSc, PhD         
Sponsors and Collaborators
University of Reading
Investigators
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Principal Investigator: Julie A Lovegrove, BSc, PhD University of Reading

Publications:
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Responsible Party: Julie Lovegrove, Professor of Human Nutrition, University of Reading
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03068962     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 32/16
First Posted: March 3, 2017    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: March 3, 2017
Last Verified: February 2017

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Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: No
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Stomatognathic Diseases
Anti-Infective Agents, Local
Anti-Infective Agents