Comparison of Peritonsillar Infiltration of Tramadol Ketamine and Placebo on Pediatric Posttonsillectomy Pain
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|ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03067103|
Recruitment Status : Not yet recruiting
First Posted : March 1, 2017
Last Update Posted : May 3, 2017
|Condition or disease||Intervention/treatment||Phase|
|Sleep Disorder; Breathing-Related Pain, Postoperative Child, Only||Drug: Tramadol Drug: Ketamine Drug: Placebos||Phase 4|
Adenotonsillectomy is one of the most common ambulatory surgical procedures performed to children. Tonsillectomy or adenotonsillectomy have a high incidence of postoperative pain. There is still debate about the optimal analgesia for this common surgical procedure. Different methods have been described and used to reduce pain including. The main goal of the preventive analgesia is the pain relief with minimum side effects. The role of local anesthetic infiltration in the reduction of postadenotonsillectomy pain is still controversial. Blockage of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) activation and interception of nociceptive in put are important factors to achieve the reduction in subsequent pain. Ketamine hydrochloride is an NMDA receptor antagonist. The blockage of the NMDA channel and analgesic properties are both at subanesthetic doses for the ketamine. Ketamine also prevents central sensitization of nociceptors. Previous studies described the analgesic effect of intravenous application or peritonsillar infiltration of ketamine intraoperatively in children after tonsillectomy. Tramadol is another analgesic and a synthetic opioid of the aminocyclohexanol group which is a central opioid agonist with less respiratory depression compared to morphine. We knew that tramadol has both systemic and local anesthetic effect on peripheral nerves from human and animal studies.
The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the University. The consents will be taken from all parents. Patients will be randomized from seald envelope into tramadol, ketamine or control (serum physiologic) to receive the preincisional peritonsillar infiltration before the surgery. There will de 36 patients in each group. The study drug is supplied of a liquid identical in color and volume. All surgeons, anesthesiologists, nurses, patients and parents will be blinded to study group until the end of the study All children will receive a premedication including midazolam hydrochloride (0.5 mg/kg; maximum dose, 20 mg) followed by a standard general inhalational anesthetic (50% O2-N2O and 8% sevoflurane). Children also received 0.1 mg/kg of fentanyl citrate and 0.2 mg/kg mivacurium intravenously. After the intubation maintenance anesthesia will be keep with nitrous oxide (50%) in oxygen and sevoflurane. All patients will receive the peritonsillar injection of the study drug before the excision of the anesthesia. Tramadol group will receive 2 mg/kg (2 ml), ketamine group 0.5 mg/kg (2cc), control group 2 ml of serum physiologic. All infiltrations will be through the peritonsillar fossa. For each tonsil 1 ml will be applied to upper pole, lower pole and between the upper and lower pole with 25-G needle. After the infiltration surgeons will wait 3 min for tonsillectomy. The same standard blunt dissection will be performed to all children by the same surgeon. During the operation heart rate oxygen saturation, average blood pressure, respiration rates will be recorded in every 5 min. Operation, anesthesia times will also be recorded. Postoperatively pain, nausea, vomiting, sedation scores, the existence of dysphagia, bleeding were recorded at 2, 6, 12, 24 h postoperatively. Children's pain scores will be measured by using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS).If the pain score is greater than 5, Ibuprofen will be given to children. Pains with the request for analgesic requirements, the time of analgesia requirement, patient satisfaction will be also recorded.
Data analysis will be performed by using SPSS for Windows. The relationship between categorical variables will be test by Chi-square test and Anova test will be performed to compare groups according to continuous variables. Also LSD test will be used to detect subgroup differences. p Values higher than 0.05 will be considered as significant. Mean and standard deviations and percentages will be given as descriptive statistics.
|Study Type :||Interventional (Clinical Trial)|
|Estimated Enrollment :||108 participants|
|Intervention Model:||Sequential Assignment|
|Intervention Model Description:||Patientes will be seleted to receive peritonsillar injection of Tramadol, Ketamine or Placebo before tonsillectomy prospective, double-blind, placebo controlles|
|Masking:||Triple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator)|
|Masking Description:||Patients admitted for tonsillectomy were randomized into 3 groups by means of sealed envelopes. The envelope selected by the caregiver will be open by the registered nurse, who will prepare the infiltration. Neither the surgeon, anesthesiologist the caregiver nor the patient will see what is inside the envelope. The register of the envelope number and patient data will be done by the statistical group|
|Official Title:||Comparison of Effect of Peritonsillar Infiltration of Ketamine and Tramadol on Pediatric Posttonsillectomy Pain: A Double-blinded Randomized Placebo-controlled Clinical Trial|
|Estimated Study Start Date :||July 1, 2017|
|Estimated Primary Completion Date :||July 1, 2017|
|Estimated Study Completion Date :||May 1, 2019|
Active Comparator: tramadol
Tramadol group will receive 2 mg/kg (2 ml) through the peritonsillar fossa. For each tonsil 1 ml will be applied to upper pole, lower pole and between the upper and lower pole with 25-G needle. The depth of the infiltration will be as superficial as 3 mm of needle injected and ballooned out the submucosal tissues of the tonsillar pillar, intratonsillar injection as avoided.
Patients will receive injections in peritonsillar fossa of tramadol (2 mg/kg-2 ml)
Other Name: group 1
Active Comparator: ketamine
Ketamine group will receive 0.5 mg/kg (2cc) through the peritonsillar fossa. For each tonsil 1 ml will be applied to upper pole, lower pole and between the upper and lower pole with 25-G needle. The depth of the infiltration will be as superficial as 3 mm of needle injected and ballooned out the submucosal tissues of the tonsillar pillar, intratonsillar injection as avoided.
Patients will receive injections in peritonsillar fossa of ketamine prior to surgery
Other Name: Group 2
Placebo Comparator: Placebo
Placebo group will receive 2mL of saline solution through the peritonsillar fossa. For each tonsil 1 ml will be applied to upper pole, lower pole and between the upper and lower pole with 25-G needle. The depth of the infiltration will be as superficial as 3 mm of needle injected and ballooned out the submucosal tissues of the tonsillar pillar, intratonsillar injection as avoided.
Patients will receive 2mL of saline solution in peritonsillar fossa prior to surgery
Other Name: Group 3
- Peritonsillar infiltration of ketamine reduces postoperative pain in children undergone adenotonsillectomy [ Time Frame: 24h ]Children will be evaluated by the Visual Analog Scale of pain and children who had received ketamine should be lower scores when compared to children who had received placebo. These children are expected to ask less times for analgesic medication;
- Peritonsillar infiltration of tramadol reduces postoperative pain in children undergone [ Time Frame: 24h ]Children will be evaluated by the Visual Analog Scale of pain and children who had received tramadol should be lower scores when compared to children who had received placebo. These children are expected to ask less times for analgesic medication;
To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT03067103
|Contact: juliana a caixeta, MDfirstname.lastname@example.org|
|Juliana Alves de Sousa Caixeta||Not yet recruiting|
|Anápolis, GO, Brazil, 75110-520|
|Contact: juliana A caixeta, MD +5562982706980 email@example.com|
|Sub-Investigator: Melissa A Avelino, PhD|
|Sub-Investigator: Paulo S Sucasas, PhD|
|Principal Investigator:||juliana a caixeta, MD||Assistant Doctor|