Working… Menu

Children's Taste Study to Increase Vegetable Intake in Preschoolers (CTS)

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT03043118
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : February 3, 2017
Last Update Posted : December 14, 2017
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Kathleen Loralee Keller, Penn State University

Brief Summary:
Studies have shown that when exposed to a variety of food and flavor options people tend to consume more than when only one item is presented. This strategy has been used to increase vegetable intake in adults and during snacktime in children. Increasing vegetable consumption in children is important because higher vegetable intake has been associated with reduced risk of disease and because vegetables can help prevent weight gain by lowering the energy density of a meal. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of using herb and spice blends to create flavor variety in carrots as a model vegetable in a laboratory test meal. We predict that children will consume more vegetables and that the energy density of the meal will be lower when a variety of seasoned carrots are presented in comparison to a single flavor. A secondary goal of the study was to determine other influences that may predict children's liking and intake of seasoned vegetables, such as previous exposure, infant feeding practices, and genetic bitter sensitivity.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Pediatric Obesity Other: Variety Intervention Not Applicable

Layout table for study information
Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 48 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Crossover Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Pilot Study to Test the Influence of Vegetable Flavor Variety Using Herbs and Spices on Preschool Children's Vegetable Intake
Actual Study Start Date : February 2015
Actual Primary Completion Date : November 2, 2016
Actual Study Completion Date : November 2, 2016

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

MedlinePlus related topics: Toddler Health

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Variety
Children receive three servings of vegetables each prepared with a different herb and spice blend.
Other: Variety Intervention
Vegetable flavor variety created with multiple herb and spice blends

No Intervention: No Variety - Control
Children receive three servings of vegetables each prepared with the same herb and spice blend.

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Chang in Vegetable Intake [ Time Frame: Baseline and 1 week ]
    Consumption is measured by pre- and post- weights of carrot offered in both the variety and no variety conditions

  2. Change in Total Food Intake [ Time Frame: Baseline and 1 week ]
    Consumption is measured by pre- and post- weights of all meal items offered in both the variety and no variety conditions

  3. Change in Meal Energy Density [ Time Frame: Baseline and 1 week ]
    Calculated from the total calories consumed divided by the grams of food eaten

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Spice Intake Questionnaire [ Time Frame: Baseline ]
    A survey of maternally reported herb and spice consumption during pregnancy and breastfeeding as well as current home use

  2. Home Spice Checklist [ Time Frame: Baseline ]
    A comprehensive checklist of 34 herbs and spices for parents to fill out at home to evaluate children's overall herb and spice exposure

  3. Infant Feeding Practices [ Time Frame: Baseline ]
    A survey of maternally reported feeding practices, include breastfeeding, formula feeding, and introduction to solid foods.

  4. Liking of Broccoli with Herbs and Spices [ Time Frame: Baseline ]
    Liking is measured using a child friendly 5-pt hedonic scale; pilot data for future studies looking to apply this technique to green vegetables

  5. Liking of Carrots with Herb and Spice Blends [ Time Frame: Baseline ]
    Liking is measured using a child friendly 5-pt hedonic scale

Other Outcome Measures:
  1. Age [ Time Frame: Baseline ]
    Age of the participant on visit 1

  2. Height [ Time Frame: Baseline ]
    Height measured in cm on a stadiometer

  3. Weight [ Time Frame: Baseline ]
    Weight measured to the 0.1 pounds using a digital scale

  4. 6-n-propylthiourcacil Sensitivity [ Time Frame: Baseline ]
    Children switch and spit a 56 umol solution of 6-n-propylthiouracil and are classified as tasters if it described as "bitter" or "yucky" and non-tasters if it's described as "nothing" or "like water".

  5. Body Mass Index [ Time Frame: Baseline ]
    Calculated from height and weight (kg/m^2)

  6. Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire [ Time Frame: Baseline ]
    A validated parent-reported questionnaire on children's typical eating behaviors and attitudes toward foods

  7. Preschool Adjusted Liking Scale [ Time Frame: Baseline ]
    A questionnaire to assess children's liking of various common foods and daily activities.

  8. Family Demographics [ Time Frame: Baseline ]
    A parent-reported questionnaire

  9. Parental Feeding Practices [ Time Frame: Baseline ]
    A parent-reported questionnaire on typical feeding practices

Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.

Layout table for eligibility information
Ages Eligible for Study:   3 Years to 5 Years   (Child)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Acceptance of test meal foods
  • Generally healthy

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Food allergies
  • Medications (prescription or OTC) that can affect taste, smell or appetite
  • Medical conditions

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT03043118

Layout table for location information
United States, Pennsylvania
The Pennsylvania State University
University Park, Pennsylvania, United States, 16802
Sponsors and Collaborators
Penn State University
Layout table for investigator information
Principal Investigator: Kathleen L Keller, Ph.D. The Pennsylvania State University

Layout table for additonal information
Responsible Party: Kathleen Loralee Keller, Assistant Professor, Penn State University Identifier: NCT03043118     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: ChildrensTasteStudy
First Posted: February 3, 2017    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: December 14, 2017
Last Verified: December 2017
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: No
Keywords provided by Kathleen Loralee Keller, Penn State University:
Eating Behaviors
Vegetable Intake
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Layout table for MeSH terms
Pediatric Obesity
Nutrition Disorders
Body Weight
Signs and Symptoms