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Effects of Native Whey or Milk Supplementation on Adaptations to 12 Weeks of Strength Training in Young and Elderly

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03033953
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : January 27, 2017
Last Update Posted : January 27, 2017
Sponsor:
Collaborators:
Tine
The Research Council of Norway
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Truls Raastad, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences

Brief Summary:
The aim of this study is to investigate the long term adaptations to 11 (elderly) or 12 (young) weeks of strength training when supplemented with native whey or milk. The investigators hypothesize that native whey will give greater increases in muscle hypertrophy and strength than milk.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Healthy Young Elderly Dietary Supplement: Native whey Dietary Supplement: Milk Other: Strength training Not Applicable

Detailed Description:

Increasing or maintaining muscle mass is of great importance for populations ranging from athletes to patients and elderly. Resistance exercise and protein ingestion are two of the most potent stimulators of muscle protein synthesis. Both the physical characteristic of proteins (e.g. different digestion rates of whey and casein) and the amino acid composition, affects the potential of a certain protein to stimulate muscle protein synthesis. Given its superior ability to rapidly increase blood leucine concentrations to high levels, whey is often considered the most potent protein source to stimulate muscle protein synthesis. Native whey protein is produced by filtration of unprocessed milk. Consequently, native whey has different characteristics than milk. Of special interest is the higher amounts of the highly anabolic amino acid leucine in native whey.

The higher levels of leucine can be of great interest for elderly individuals as some studies in elderly has shown an anabolic resistance to the effects of protein feeding and strength training. By increasing levels of leucine one might overcome this anabolic resistance in the elderly.

The aim of this double-blinded, randomized, partial cross-over study is to compare the changes in muscle hypertrophy and strength after a 11 (elderly) or 12 (young) week training intervention with daily supplementation of either 2x20g of native whey or milk proteins in young and elderly individuals. In order to explain potential differences between supplements an acute study investigating acute responses in blood amino acid concentrations and intracellular signalling is planned, in a subgroup of participants, before and after the training intervention.

The investigators hypothesize that native whey will induce greater muscle hypertrophy and strength gains than milk.


Layout table for study information
Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 66 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Quadruple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Basic Science
Official Title: Effects of Native Whey and Milk Supplementation on Changes in Muscle Mass and Strength After 12 Weeks of Strength Training in Young and Elderly
Study Start Date : August 2014
Actual Primary Completion Date : June 2015
Actual Study Completion Date : November 2016

Arm Intervention/treatment
Placebo Comparator: Milk supplementation
11 (elderly) or 12 (young) weeks of strength training and daily supplementation of 2x20g milk protein.
Dietary Supplement: Milk
Other: Strength training
Experimental: Native whey
11 (elderly) or 12 (young) weeks of strength training and daily supplementation of 2x20g native whey protein.
Dietary Supplement: Native whey
Other: Strength training



Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Lean mass [ Time Frame: Before the training intervention ]
    Measured by whole body dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA)

  2. Lean mass [ Time Frame: After 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
    Measured by whole body dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA)


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Thigh muscle cross sectional area [ Time Frame: Before the training intervention ]
    Measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

  2. Thigh muscle cross sectional area [ Time Frame: After 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
    Measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

  3. Pectoralis muscle cross sectional area [ Time Frame: Before the training intervention ]
    Measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

  4. Pectoralis muscle cross sectional area [ Time Frame: After 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
    Measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

  5. Arm cross sectional area [ Time Frame: Before the training intervention ]
    Measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

  6. Arm cross sectional area [ Time Frame: After 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
    Measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

  7. Thickness of the lateral vasti [ Time Frame: Before the training intervention ]
    Measured by ultrasound

  8. Thickness of the lateral vasti [ Time Frame: After 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
    Measured by ultrasound

  9. 1 repetition maximum in leg press [ Time Frame: Before the training intervention ]
  10. 1 repetition maximum in leg press [ Time Frame: After 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  11. 1 repetition maximum in bench press [ Time Frame: Before the training intervention ]
  12. 1 repetition maximum in bench press [ Time Frame: After 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  13. Ratio of phosphorylated to total ribosomal protein S6 kinase beta-1(P70S6K) change from baseline [ Time Frame: 30 min before and 2 hours after exercise and protein supplement intake, before the training intervention ]
    Biopsies from m. Vastus Lateralis was analyzed by western blot

  14. Ratio of phosphorylated to total ribosomal protein S6 kinase beta-1(P70S6K) change from baseline [ Time Frame: 30 min before and 2 hours after exercise and protein supplement intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
    Biopsies from m. Vastus Lateralis was analyzed by western blot

  15. Phosphorylation of phosphorylated to total eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF-2) change from baseline [ Time Frame: 30 min before and 2 hours after exercise and protein supplement intake, before the training intervention ]
    Biopsies from m. Vastus Lateralis was analyzed by western blot

  16. Phosphorylation of phosphorylated to total eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF-2) change from baseline [ Time Frame: 30 min before and 2 hours after exercise and protein supplement intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
    Biopsies from m. Vastus Lateralis was analyzed by western blot

  17. Phosphorylation of phosphorylated to total eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4EBP-1) change from baseline [ Time Frame: 30 min before and 2 hours after exercise and protein supplement intake, before the training intervention ]
    Biopsies from m. Vastus Lateralis was analyzed by western blot

  18. Phosphorylation of phosphorylated to total eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4EBP-1) change from baseline [ Time Frame: 30 min before and 2 hours after exercise and protein supplement intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
    Biopsies from m. Vastus Lateralis was analyzed by western blot

  19. Plasma amino acid concentration [ Time Frame: 60 min before and 45, 60, 75 and 120 min after exercise and protein supplement intake, before the training intervention ]
  20. Plasma amino acid concentration [ Time Frame: 60 min before and 45, 60, 75 and 120 min after exercise and protein supplement intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  21. Muscle force generating capacity change from baseline [ Time Frame: 15 min before, 10 min, 2.5 hours and 24 hours after exercise and protein supplement intake, before the training intervention ]
    Measured as unilateral isometric knee extension force (Nm) with 90° in the hip and knee joints.

  22. Muscle force generating capacity change from baseline [ Time Frame: 15 min before, 10 min, 2.5 hours and 24 hours after exercise and protein supplement intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
    Measured as unilateral isometric knee extension force (Nm) with 90° in the hip and knee joints.

  23. Serum glucose [ Time Frame: 60 min before and 45, 60, 75 and 120 min after exercise and protein supplement intake, before the training intervention ]
  24. Serum glucose [ Time Frame: 60 min before and 45, 60, 75 and 120 min after exercise and protein supplement intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  25. Serum insulin [ Time Frame: 60 min before and 45, 60, 75 and 120 min after exercise and protein supplement intake, before the training intervention ]
  26. Serum insulin [ Time Frame: 60 min before and 45, 60, 75 and 120 min after exercise and protein supplement intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  27. Serum urea [ Time Frame: 60 min before and 45, 60, 75 and 120 min after exercise and protein supplement intake, before the training intervention ]
  28. Serum urea [ Time Frame: 60 min before and 45, 60, 75 and 120 min after exercise and protein supplement intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  29. Serum creatine kinase [ Time Frame: 60 min before and 45, 60, 75 and 120 min after exercise and protein supplement intake, before the training intervention ]
  30. Serum creatine kinase [ Time Frame: 60 min before and 45, 60, 75 and 120 min after exercise and protein supplement intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  31. Tumor necrosis factor alfa messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  32. Tumor necrosis factor alfa mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  33. Tumor necrosis factor alfa mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  34. Tumor necrosis factor alfa mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  35. Interleukin 6 mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  36. Interleukin 6 mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  37. Interleukin 6 mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  38. Interleukin 6 mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  39. Interleukin 8 mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  40. Interleukin 8 mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  41. Interleukin 8 mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  42. Interleukin 8 mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  43. Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 4 Group A Member 2 mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  44. Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 4 Group A Member 2 mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  45. Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 4 Group A Member 2 mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  46. Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 4 Group A Member 2 mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  47. Interleukin 1b mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  48. Interleukin 1b mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  49. Interleukin 1b mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  50. Interleukin 1b mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  51. Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  52. Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  53. Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  54. Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  55. C-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 2 mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  56. C-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 2 mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  57. C-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 2 mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  58. C-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 2 mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  59. Interleukin 4 mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  60. Interleukin 4 mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  61. Interleukin 4 mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  62. Interleukin 4 mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  63. Interleukin 10 mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  64. Interleukin 10 mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  65. Interleukin 10 mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  66. Interleukin 10 mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  67. C-X-C Motif Chemokine Ligand mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  68. C-X-C Motif Chemokine Ligand mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  69. C-X-C Motif Chemokine Ligand mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  70. C-X-C Motif Chemokine Ligand mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  71. Cholesterol 25-Hydroxylase mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  72. Cholesterol 25-Hydroxylase mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  73. Cholesterol 25-Hydroxylase mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  74. Cholesterol 25-Hydroxylase mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  75. C-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 8 mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  76. C-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 8 mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  77. C-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 8 mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  78. C-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 8 mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  79. Interleukin 17D mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  80. Interleukin 17D mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  81. Interleukin 17D mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  82. Interleukin 17D mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  83. C-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 3 mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  84. C-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 3 mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  85. C-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 3 mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  86. C-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 3 mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  87. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma, Coactivator 1 Alpha mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  88. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma, Coactivator 1 Alpha mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  89. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma, Coactivator 1 Alpha mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  90. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma, Coactivator 1 Alpha mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  91. C-X-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 16 mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  92. C-X-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 16 mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  93. C-X-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 16 mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  94. C-X-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 16 mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  95. C-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 5 mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  96. C-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 5 mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  97. C-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 5 mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  98. C-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 5 mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  99. Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 4 Group A Member 3 mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  100. Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 4 Group A Member 3 mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  101. Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 4 Group A Member 3 mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  102. Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 4 Group A Member 3 mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  103. Uncoupling Protein 1 mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  104. Uncoupling Protein 1 mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  105. Uncoupling Protein 1 mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  106. Uncoupling Protein 1 mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  107. Matrix Metallopeptidase 9 mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  108. Matrix Metallopeptidase 9 mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  109. Matrix Metallopeptidase 9 mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  110. Matrix Metallopeptidase 9 mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  111. ATP Binding Cassette Subfamily A Member 1 mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  112. ATP Binding Cassette Subfamily A Member 1 mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  113. ATP Binding Cassette Subfamily A Member 1 mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  114. ATP Binding Cassette Subfamily A Member 1 mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  115. Leukocyte Differentiation Antigen CD36 mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  116. Leukocyte Differentiation Antigen CD36 mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  117. Leukocyte Differentiation Antigen CD36 mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  118. Leukocyte Differentiation Antigen CD36 mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  119. Toll Like Receptor 2 mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  120. Toll Like Receptor 2 mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  121. Toll Like Receptor 2 mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  122. Toll Like Receptor 2 mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  123. Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 1 Group H Member 3 mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  124. Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 1 Group H Member 3 mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  125. Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 1 Group H Member 3 mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  126. Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 1 Group H Member 3 mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  127. Solute Carrier Family 3 Member 2 mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  128. Solute Carrier Family 3 Member 2 mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  129. Solute Carrier Family 3 Member 2 mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  130. Solute Carrier Family 3 Member 2 mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  131. Solute Carrier Family 7 Member 5 mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  132. Solute Carrier Family 7 Member 5 mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  133. Solute Carrier Family 7 Member 5 mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  134. Solute Carrier Family 7 Member 5 mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  135. Solute Carrier Family 36 Member 1 mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  136. Solute Carrier Family 36 Member 1 mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  137. Solute Carrier Family 36 Member 1 mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  138. Solute Carrier Family 36 Member 1 mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  139. Solute Carrier Family 38 Member 2 mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  140. Solute Carrier Family 38 Member 2 mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  141. Solute Carrier Family 38 Member 2 mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  142. Solute Carrier Family 38 Member 2 mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  143. Muscle-Specific RING Finger Protein 1 mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  144. Muscle-Specific RING Finger Protein 1 mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  145. Muscle-Specific RING Finger Protein 1 mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  146. Muscle-Specific RING Finger Protein 1 mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  147. Atrogin-1 mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  148. Atrogin-1 mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  149. Atrogin-1 mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  150. Atrogin-1 mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  151. Forkhead Box Protein O1A mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  152. Forkhead Box Protein O1A mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  153. Forkhead Box Protein O1A mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  154. Forkhead Box Protein O1A mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  155. Forkhead Box O3 mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  156. Forkhead Box O3 mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  157. Forkhead Box O3 mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  158. Forkhead Box O3 mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  159. Myosin Heavy Chain 7 mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  160. Myosin Heavy Chain 7 mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  161. Myosin Heavy Chain 7 mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  162. Myosin Heavy Chain 7 mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  163. Myosin Heavy Chain 2 mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  164. Myosin Heavy Chain 2 mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  165. Myosin Heavy Chain 2 mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  166. Myosin Heavy Chain 2 mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  167. Myosin Heavy Chain 1 mRNA Myosin Heavy Chain 1 mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  168. Myosin Heavy Chain 1 mRNA Myosin Heavy Chain 1 mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  169. Myosin Heavy Chain 1mRNA Myosin Heavy Chain 1 mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  170. Myosin Heavy Chain 1 mRNA Myosin Heavy Chain 1 mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  171. Insulin Like Growth Factor 1 mRNA Myosin Heavy Chain 1 mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  172. Insulin Like Growth Factor 1 mRNA Myosin Heavy Chain 1 mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  173. Insulin Like Growth Factor 1 mRNA Myosin Heavy Chain 1 mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  174. Insulin Like Growth Factor 1 mRNA Myosin Heavy Chain 1 mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  175. Mast Cell Growth Factor mRNA Myosin Heavy Chain 1 mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  176. Mast Cell Growth Factor mRNA Myosin Heavy Chain 1 mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  177. Mast Cell Growth Factor mRNA Myosin Heavy Chain 1 mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  178. Mast Cell Growth Factor mRNA Myosin Heavy Chain 1 mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  179. Hepatocyte Growth Factor mRNA Myosin Heavy Chain 1 mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  180. Hepatocyte Growth Factor mRNA Myosin Heavy Chain 1 mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  181. Hepatocyte Growth Factor mRNA Myosin Heavy Chain 1 mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  182. Hepatocyte Growth Factor mRNA Myosin Heavy Chain 1 mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  183. Myostatin mRNA Myosin Heavy Chain 1 mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  184. Myostatin mRNA Myosin Heavy Chain 1 mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  185. Myostatin mRNA Myosin Heavy Chain 1 mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  186. Myostatin mRNA Myosin Heavy Chain 1 mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  187. Striated Muscle Activator Of Rho-Dependent Signaling mRNA Myosin Heavy Chain 1 mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  188. Striated Muscle Activator Of Rho-Dependent Signaling mRNA Myosin Heavy Chain 1 mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  189. Striated Muscle Activator Of Rho-Dependent Signaling mRNA Myosin Heavy Chain 1 mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  190. Striated Muscle Activator Of Rho-Dependent Signaling mRNA Myosin Heavy Chain 1 mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  191. JunB Proto-Oncogene, AP-1 Transcription Factor Subunit mRNA Myosin Heavy Chain 1 mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  192. JunB Proto-Oncogene, AP-1 Transcription Factor Subunit mRNA Myosin Heavy Chain 1 mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  193. JunB Proto-Oncogene, AP-1 Transcription Factor Subunit mRNA Myosin Heavy Chain 1 mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  194. JunB Proto-Oncogene, AP-1 Transcription Factor Subunit mRNA Myosin Heavy Chain 1 mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  195. Actin, Alpha 1, Skeletal Muscle mRNA Myosin Heavy Chain 1 mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  196. Actin, Alpha 1, Skeletal Muscle mRNA Myosin Heavy Chain 1 mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  197. Actin, Alpha 1, Skeletal Muscle mRNA Myosin Heavy Chain 1 mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  198. Actin, Alpha 1, Skeletal Muscle mRNA Myosin Heavy Chain 1 mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  199. Colony Stimulating Factor 3 mRNA Myosin Heavy Chain 1 mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  200. Colony Stimulating Factor 3 mRNA Myosin Heavy Chain 1 mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  201. Colony Stimulating Factor 3 mRNA Myosin Heavy Chain 1 mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  202. Colony Stimulating Factor 3 mRNA Myosin Heavy Chain 1 mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  203. Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthase 2 mRNA Myosin Heavy Chain 1 mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  204. Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthase 2 mRNA Myosin Heavy Chain 1 mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  205. Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthase 2 mRNA Myosin Heavy Chain 1 mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  206. Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthase 2 mRNA Myosin Heavy Chain 1 mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  207. TATA-Box Binding Protein mRNA Myosin Heavy Chain 1 mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  208. TATA-Box Binding Protein mRNA Myosin Heavy Chain 1 mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  209. TATA-Box Binding Protein mRNA Myosin Heavy Chain 1 mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  210. TATA-Box Binding Protein mRNA Myosin Heavy Chain 1 mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  211. Filamin B mRNA Myosin Heavy Chain 1 mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  212. Filamin B mRNA Myosin Heavy Chain 1 mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  213. Filamin B mRNA Myosin Heavy Chain 1 mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  214. Filamin B mRNA Myosin Heavy Chain 1 mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  215. Beta-2-Microglobulin mRNA Myosin Heavy Chain 1 mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  216. Beta-2-Microglobulin mRNA Myosin Heavy Chain 1 mRNA [ Time Frame: 2 hours after exercise and protein intake, before training intervention ]
  217. Beta-2-Microglobulin mRNA Myosin Heavy Chain 1 mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min before exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  218. Beta-2-Microglobulin mRNA Myosin Heavy Chain 1 mRNA [ Time Frame: 30 min after exercise and protein intake, after 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  219. Fasting cholesterol (only in elderly) [ Time Frame: Before training intervention ]
  220. Fasting cholesterol (only in elderly) [ Time Frame: After 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  221. Fasting triglycerides (only in elderly) [ Time Frame: Before training intervention ]
  222. Fasting triglycerides (only in elderly) [ Time Frame: After 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  223. Fasting LDL (only in elderly) [ Time Frame: Before training intervention ]
  224. Fasting LDL (only in elderly) [ Time Frame: After 11-12 weeks of strength training ]
  225. Fasting HDL (only in elderly) [ Time Frame: Before training intervention ]
  226. Fasting HDL (only in elderly) [ Time Frame: After 11-12 weeks of strength training ]


Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.


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Ages Eligible for Study:   20 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Healthy in the sense that they can conduct training and testing
  • Able to understand Norwegian language written and oral
  • Between 20 and 45, or above 70 years of age

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Diseases or injuries contraindicating participation
  • Use of dietary supplements (e.g. proteins, vitamins and creatine)
  • Lactose intolerance
  • Allergy to milk
  • Allergy towards local anesthetics (xylocain)

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT03033953


Locations
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Norway
Norwegian School of Sport Sciences
Oslo, Norway, 0863
Sponsors and Collaborators
Norwegian School of Sport Sciences
Tine
The Research Council of Norway

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Responsible Party: Truls Raastad, Professor, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03033953     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: Tine 12wk
First Posted: January 27, 2017    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: January 27, 2017
Last Verified: January 2017
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: Undecided