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Understanding How Cigarette Direct Mail Marketing Influences Smoking Behaviors Among High and Low Socioeconomic Status Young Adult Smokers

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02974582
Recruitment Status : Recruiting
First Posted : November 28, 2016
Last Update Posted : October 1, 2018
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC) ( National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities (NIMHD) )

Brief Summary:

Background:

Smoking is a major public health problem in the U.S. Almost a half a million Americans die from it in a year. One thing that contributes to why people smoke is the marketing of cigarettes. Cigarette direct mail marketing usually targets young smokers of lower socioeconomic status. Researchers want to find out more about how this kind of marketing influences smoking behavior in young people from different socioeconomic levels.

Objectives:

To study the effects of cigarette direct mail marketing on beliefs, responses, and arousal. To study how these things may differ among young adult smokers of high and low socioeconomic status.

Eligibility:

Healthy adults ages 18 to 29 who smoke.

Design:

Participants will have 1 visit.

Participants will be asked questions about their health and recent smoking.

A nurse will check their vital signs.

Participants will have a simple eye exam.

They will give blood and urine samples.

Participants will be connected to equipment. This will collect data while they look at pictures.

Then they will have a 10-minute break. A nurse will observe them during the break.

Participants will have their breath analyzed.

Participants will answer questions. The topics will include:

Education

Job

Income

Family history

Tobacco use

Exposure to pro-smoking and anti-smoking messages

History of drug and alcohol use


Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Nicotine Dependence Behavioral: exposure to smoking advertising with coupon Behavioral: exposure to smoking advertising Behavioral: exposure to non health related images Behavioral: exposure to smoking advertising no coupon Not Applicable

Detailed Description:
Smoking remains a public health problem in the US, and cigarette marketing has been concluded as one of the causal factors for the epidemic. Previous studies on cigarette direct mail marketing yielded a limited data on mechanisms influencing smoking behavior. Therefore, there is a need for a study that would provide a stronger evidence on how direct mail marketing influences smoking behavior. The prosed study will consist of two parts where pilot data are to be collected in Part 1, and further data are to be collected in Part 2 conducted as a randomized comparative trial. Up to a total of 530 healthy volunteers ages 18-29 are to be recruited for the study. After meeting the eligibility and enrolling onto the study, participants will have their biospecimens collected followed by an experiment in which they are to be shown images on the computer. Study participants will then take a break and afterwards will provide additional sociodemographic and psychosocial information through an audio computer assisted self-administered interview.

Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Estimated Enrollment : 530 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Other
Official Title: Understanding How Cigarette Direct Mail Marketing Influences Smoking Behaviors Among High and Low Socioeconomic Status Young Adult Smokers
Study Start Date : November 22, 2016
Estimated Primary Completion Date : October 6, 2019
Estimated Study Completion Date : October 6, 2021

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

MedlinePlus related topics: Smoking

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: 1: Part 1 - with coupon
60 participants of high and low SES will be exposed to advertising material to inform sample size and material selection for part 2
Behavioral: exposure to smoking advertising with coupon
direct mail marketing of smoking advertising with discount coupon

Experimental: 2: Part 2 - with coupon
randomized to view direct mail marketing smoking advertising with discount coupon
Behavioral: exposure to smoking advertising with coupon
direct mail marketing of smoking advertising with discount coupon

Experimental: 3: Part 2 - no coupon
randomized to view direct mail marketing smoking advertising without discount coupon
Behavioral: exposure to smoking advertising
direct mail marketing of smoking advertising without discount coupon

Experimental: 4: Part 2 - no coupon
randomized to view direct mail marketing smoking advertising without discount coupon
Behavioral: exposure to smoking advertising no coupon
direct mail marketing of smoking advertising without discount coupon

Experimental: 5: Part 2 - control
exposure to neutral non-health related images
Behavioral: exposure to non health related images
control group




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. To collect pilot data to examine the variability in beliefs, effective responses, and arousal to cigarette direct mail marketing materials between young adult smokers of high and low socioeconomic status. [ Time Frame: 1 Day ]
  2. To conduct a randomized comparative trial to examine the effect of cigarette direct mail materials on beliefs, affective responses, arousal, and smoking behavior, and their variation by SES among young adult smokers. [ Time Frame: 1 Day ]

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. To select cigarette direct mail marketing materials that are perceived to be similar in their persuasiveness for Part 2 of the study. [ Time Frame: 1 day ]


Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 29 Years   (Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes
Criteria
  • INCLUSION CRITERIA:
  • Age: 18 to 29 years, given our focus on young adults.
  • Smoking status: Current smokers who report smoking every day and who have smoked at least 100 cigarettes in their lifetime.
  • Gender: Both male and female
  • SES: For the purpose of the study, we will use the empirical groups from our analysis of the Current Population Survey Tobacco Use Supplement data. Two groups are chosen based on their social determinants and prevalence of smoking.

    1. Low SES: Young adults who do not have a four-year college degree, are not currently enrolled in a four-year college, were born in the US, and have an annual income less than $50,000. This is the group that has been shown to have the highest prevalence of smoking.
    2. High SES: Young adults who are currently enrolled in or graduated from a four year college. This is the group that has been shown to have the lowest prevalence of smoking.
  • English proficiency: since study materials are available only in English, only participants who are able to understand English and follow instructions in English are to be enrolled.
  • Cognitive ability: Able to understand and willing to sign a written informed consent document.
  • General health: Participants need to be generally healthy, as defined as someone with no known significant health problems. Participants can have chronic health conditions if the condition is well managed.

EXCLUSION CRITERIA:

  • Inability, in the judgment of the investigator, to understand and follow the requirements of the protocol.
  • Currently enrolled in high school.
  • Participants with eye conditions that restrict their ability to track an object with their eyes.
  • Participants with myopia, hyperopia, and/or astigmatism who cannot pass a simple vision test even with corrective lenses.
  • Participants with medical condition(s) that may be triggered by infrared radiation (e.g., epilepsy).
  • Self-reported use of alcohol, recreational drugs or prescription medications used for recreational purposes (e. i. amphetamines, cannabis, cocaine, MDMA, ketamines, LSD, opiates and opioids, tranquilizers or opioid analgesics) that may influence their judgement at the time of study in the past 12 hours before the study visit.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT02974582


Contacts
Contact: Tsz (Kelvin) C Choi, Ph.D. (301) 496-3400 tsz.choi@nih.gov

Locations
United States, Maryland
National Institutes of Health Clinical Center Recruiting
Bethesda, Maryland, United States, 20892
Contact: For more information at the NIH Clinical Center contact Office of Patient Recruitment (OPR)    800-411-1222 ext TTY8664111010    prpl@cc.nih.gov   
Sponsors and Collaborators
National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities (NIMHD)
Investigators
Principal Investigator: Tsz (Kelvin) C Choi, Ph.D. National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities (NIMHD)

Additional Information:
Responsible Party: National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities (NIMHD)
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02974582     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 170015
17-MD-0015
First Posted: November 28, 2016    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: October 1, 2018
Last Verified: September 25, 2018

Keywords provided by National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC) ( National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities (NIMHD) ):
Marketing
Smoking
Cigarette
Young Adult
Socioeconomic Status

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Tobacco Use Disorder
Substance-Related Disorders
Chemically-Induced Disorders
Mental Disorders