Physiotherapy Prehabilitation in Patients Undergoing Cardiac or Thoracic Surgery
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|ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02939729|
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : October 20, 2016
Last Update Posted : October 29, 2019
|Condition or disease||Intervention/treatment||Phase|
|Coronary Artery Disease Lung Cancer Lung Tumor||Other: Walking Programme Device: Incentive Spirometer Other: Deep Breathing Exercises||Not Applicable|
Preoperative rehabilitation or "Prehabilitation" can be defined as "the process of enhancing the functional capacity of the individual to enable him or her to withstand a stressful event". Prehabilitation is a relatively new concept with emerging evidence demonstrating a reduction in length of hospital stay and disability, improved functional capacity and quality of life as well as fewer peri-operative complications compared to usual care.
Patients who are awaiting Cardiothoracic surgery are often fearful of being physically active, however extended periods of physical inactivity lead to a loss of muscle mass, physical deconditioning and pulmonary complications which can in turn lead to decreased quality of life, higher levels of morbidity, increased hospital length of stay and even fatality.
Based on literature supporting the positive effects of physical activity, physiotherapy prehabilitation aims to enhance functional exercise capacity in patients undergoing Cardiothoracic surgery and hence minimising the risk of postoperative morbidity and enhancing postsurgical recovery. Although there is evidence for prehabilitation in cardiothoracic specialties these are mainly within heart failure patients therefore not comparable to patients undergoing CABG or lobectomy surgeries.
The aim of this study is to determine whether a home based preoperative prehabilitation programme improves patients' functional capacity, as measured by a 6 minute walk test (6MWT) prior to surgery and improve post surgical recovery and recovery of functional capacity earlier. This study will compare functional capacity levels from baseline (at time of being accepted for surgery) and on the day of admission for surgery. Secondary aims are to determine functional capacity prior to discharge from hospital and at 6-8 week follow up appointment. Increasing maximal tidal volumes preoperatively would in turn decrease the chance of atelectasis postoperatively thereby decreasing pulmonary complications. Time to achieve discharge criteria from physiotherapy and total post-operative hospital length of stay will be assessed. Patient health related satisfaction will be assessed using the EQ-5D. The endpoint of this study will be when the patient returns for their routine 6-8 week follow up appointment and completes final 6MWT, tidal volume (TV) measurement and EQ-5D.
|Study Type :||Interventional (Clinical Trial)|
|Actual Enrollment :||40 participants|
|Intervention Model:||Parallel Assignment|
|Primary Purpose:||Supportive Care|
|Official Title:||The Effect of a Physiotherapy Prehabilitation Programme on Postoperative Outcomes in Patients Undergoing Cardiac or Thoracic Surgery|
|Actual Study Start Date :||September 2016|
|Actual Primary Completion Date :||August 2019|
|Actual Study Completion Date :||August 2019|
This group will receive standard preoperative information and education and be provided with a physiotherapy prehabilitation programme. This programme will be carried out from time of consenting to participate in the study until day of admission to surgery for cardiac or thoracic surgery. The prehabilitation programme consists of: walking programme, deep breathing exercises and tidal volume measurement using the incentive spirometer.
Other: Walking Programme
Walking programme measured by daily step count on pedometer provided to participant. Participants will be advised to increase daily step count from their baseline measure - realistic incremental rise according to individual ability and symptoms. Daily step count will be recorded in a participant study diary.
Device: Incentive Spirometer
An incentive spirometer is a device used to measure lung tidal volumes. Participants will be asked to use the incentive spirometer to measure their tidal volume daily. Participants will record daily tidal volume measurement in the participant diary. A physiotherapist will teach participants how to use the incentive spirometer and provide an instruction sheet.
Other: Deep Breathing Exercises
Participants will be taught deep breathing exercises - these are the same deep breathing exercises shown to all patients after cardiac surgery as part of chest physiotherapy treatment. Participants will be asked to carry out deep breathing exercises at home during the prehabilitation phase. An instruction sheet for the deep breathing exercises will be provided to participants.
Other Name: Breathing Exercises
No Intervention: Standard Care
This group will receive standard preoperative information and education only.
- Difference between groups functional activity from baseline to point of admission for surgery as measured by the 6MWT. [ Time Frame: From date of randomisation to date of admission for surgery (up to 8 weeks) ]The 6MWT is a validated test that requires no exercise equipment or "advanced" training for the assessor. Walking is an activity carried out on a daily basis by most people. The 6MWT measures the distance that a person can walk on a flat surface over a period of 6 minutes. The majority of activities of daily living are carried out at "sub-maximal" levels similar to the level of exertion of the 6MWT as the patient sets their own intensity (American Thoracic Society 2002). A review of functional walking tests suggested that "the 6MWT is easy to administer, better tolerated, and more reflective of activities of daily living than the other walk tests" (Solway et al 2001). Other prehabilitation studies have used the 6MWT as an outcome measure of functional activity therefore is widely accepted as a reliable measure of functional activity (Sawatzky et al 2014; Carli et al 2010; Gillis et al 2014).
- Functional capacity as measured by 6MWT on day of discharge and at return clinic appointment (up to 8 weeks) [ Time Frame: Date of discharge from physiotherapy and at return clinic appointment (up to 8 weeks) ]Measure of level of physical activity measured in metres
- Tidal Volume (TV) measures with incentive spirometer. [ Time Frame: At baseline, preoperative, postoperative days 1, 2 and 3 and at return clinic appointment (up to 8 weeks) ]Lung volume measure in mls
- Day of discharge from Physiotherapy. [ Time Frame: Once all physiotherapy criteria have been met (approximately 3 to 5 days). ]Physiotherapy discharge criteria: mobilising safely and independently with or without walking aid approximately 100 metres; independently managing chest and safely completed stairs assessment (approximately post op day 3 to 5).
- Total postoperative hospital length of stay. [ Time Frame: Once all hospital discharge criteria have been met (approximately 5-7 days). ]Total post operative hospital length is days in hospital after surgery.
- EQ-5D score. [ Time Frame: At baseline and follow up clinic appointment (up to 8 weeks). ]A standardized and validated measure of health status which can be used in a wide range of health conditions. It is a simple method which patients can complete at the beginning and end of treatment. It encompasses five dimensions of health: mobility, ability to self care, ability to complete activities of daily living, pain and discomfort, and anxiety and depression (Chartered Society of Physiotherapists, 2016).
To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT02939729
|Golden Jubilee National Hospital|
|Glasgow, United Kingdom, G81 4DY|
|Study Chair:||Fiona Nolan, Grad Dip||National Waiting Times Centre Board|
|Principal Investigator:||Katie L Lyon, MSc||National Waiting Times Centre Board|