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Physical Performance and 3D Shoulder Kinematics of Asymptomatic Unilateral/Bilateral Overhead Athletes and Non-athletes

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02852707
Recruitment Status : Enrolling by invitation
First Posted : August 2, 2016
Last Update Posted : March 25, 2020
Sponsor:
Collaborators:
University of Lisbon
Instituto Politécnico de Leiria
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Nuno Morais, Universidade do Porto

Brief Summary:
This study compares the performance and 3-dimensional shoulder kinematics between sides in unilateral overhead-throwers (volleyball attackers), bilateral overhead athletes (swimmers) and non-athletes during two physical performance measures of the upper extremity, one in an open kinetic chain position (unilateral seated shot put test) and the other in a closed kinetic chain position (upper quarter Y balance test)

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment
Shoulder Pain Behavioral: Chronic exposure to unilateral overhead sports activity Behavioral: Chronic exposure to bilateral overhead sports activity Behavioral: Not exposed

Detailed Description:
3-dimensional shoulder kinematics (e.g., scapular angular position/displacement) at key events of each test will be described and compared across sides and groups. For the unilateral seated shot put test, the events are based on humeral motion: a) initiation of humeral motion, b) maximal humeral flexion, c) end of humeral motion. For the upper quarter Y balance test the events are the a) initiation of free hand motion on "GO", b) maximal reach on the medial direction, c) maximal reach on superolateral direction, and d) maximal reach on the inferolateral direction (kinematics measured on the stance upper extremity). The best of 3 maximal-effort trials on each side will be used for analysis. Warm-up exercises and two submaximal practice trials will be performed for preparation for maximal efforts and familiarization with the tests. A rest period of at least one minute between trials will be given to guarantee good physiological conditions to maximally perform. Further resting time will be allowed, if necessary, upon request of the participant.

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Study Type : Observational
Estimated Enrollment : 90 participants
Observational Model: Case-Control
Time Perspective: Cross-Sectional
Official Title: Physical Performance and 3D Shoulder Kinematics of Asymptomatic Unilateral/Bilateral Overhead Athletes and Non-athletes
Actual Study Start Date : June 1, 2018
Estimated Primary Completion Date : October 2020
Estimated Study Completion Date : December 2020

Group/Cohort Intervention/treatment
Unilateral overhead throwing athletes
Volleyball attackers involved in competitive events ≥ 2 years, ≥18 years of age
Behavioral: Chronic exposure to unilateral overhead sports activity
Overhead sports athletes that have been chronically exposed (≥ 2 years) predominantly to specific unilateral overhead movement patterns of the dominant extremity ("throwing arm"), such as throwing or hitting a ball ("asymmetrical overhead sports).

Bilateral overhead athletes
Swimmers involved in competitive events ≥ 2 years, ≥18 years of age
Behavioral: Chronic exposure to bilateral overhead sports activity
Overhead sports athletes that have been chronically exposed (≥ 2 years) predominantly to bilateral overhead movement patterns of the upper extremities, such as swimmers ("symmetrical overhead sports").

Non-athletes
Persons not regularly involved in sports activities or occupational overhead tasks (e.g. construction workers), ≥18 years of age
Behavioral: Not exposed
People not engaged in regular sports competition/exercise training.




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Side-to-side differences in the unilateral seated shot put test (normalized distance thrown, in centimeters) [ Time Frame: Through study completion, an average of 1 year ]
    The unilateral seated shot put test consists of pushing (not throwing) at shoulder height a ~3kg medicine ball as far and forward as possible while keeping the axial skeleton in contact with a wall, knees bent at a right angle, feet flat on the floor, and the non-testing arm resting on the lap.

  2. Side-to-side differences in the upper quarter Y balance test (normalized maximal distance reached in each direction, in centimeters) [ Time Frame: Through study completion, an average of 1 year ]
    The upper quarter Y balance test is performed through the assistance of a testing device (Y-Balance Test Kit), with the subject stabilizing his/her body weight with the upper extremity being tested while performing maximal reaching efforts with the free hand in three directions: medial, superolateral, and inferolateral.


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Side-to-side differences in 3-dimensional scapular angular displacement (in degrees) [ Time Frame: Through study completion, an average of 1 year ]
    The angular displacement of the scapula in the 3 planes of orientation: lateral/medial (upward/downward) rotation, protraction/retraction (internal/external rotation), anterior/posterior tilting.

  2. Side-to-side differences in 3-dimensional humerus angular displacement (in degrees) [ Time Frame: Through study completion, an average of 1 year ]
    The angular displacement of the humerus in the 3 planes of orientation: plane of elevation, elevation/depression, axial rotation.

  3. Side-to-side differences in 3-dimensional thoracic angular displacement (in degrees) [ Time Frame: Through study completion, an average of 1 year ]
    The angular displacement of the thorax in the 3 planes of orientation: flexion/extension, lateral rotation (inclination), axial rotation.

  4. Side-to-side differences in the upper quarter Y balance test (total excursion, in centimeters) [ Time Frame: Through study completion, an average of 1 year ]
    total excursion = sum of the 3 normalized reach distances, in centimeters

  5. Side-to-side differences in the upper quarter Y balance test (overall performance score, in centimeters) [ Time Frame: Through study completion, an average of 1 year ]
    overall performance or composite score = average score of the 3 normalized reach distances, in centimeters.



Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes
Sampling Method:   Non-Probability Sample
Study Population
Athletes from sports organizations involved in competitive events and non-athletes from the general community/scholarly community
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Perform at least 150 degrees of arm elevation

Exclusion Criteria:

  • history of shoulder dislocation
  • surgery in the upper extremity ≥ 6 months
  • injury in the past month
  • evident abnormalities in posture and movement of the upper body quadrant
  • pain at the time of testing

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT02852707


Locations
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Portugal
Faculdade de Motricidade Humana, Universidade de Lisboa
Oeiras, Cruz-Quebrada, Portugal, 1499-002
Escola Superior de Saúde, Instituto Politécnico de Leiria
Leiria, Portugal, 2411-901
Faculdade de Desporto, Universidade do Porto
Porto, Portugal, 4200-450
Sponsors and Collaborators
Universidade do Porto
University of Lisbon
Instituto Politécnico de Leiria
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Responsible Party: Nuno Morais, PhD student, Universidade do Porto
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02852707    
Other Study ID Numbers: FADEUP_PhDPT_NunoMorais_std#1
First Posted: August 2, 2016    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: March 25, 2020
Last Verified: March 2020
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Shoulder Pain
Arthralgia
Joint Diseases
Musculoskeletal Diseases
Pain
Neurologic Manifestations
Signs and Symptoms