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Scale up of Enhanced Homestead Food Production in Cambodia

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02786368
Recruitment Status : Unknown
Verified May 2017 by Tim Green, University of British Columbia.
Recruitment status was:  Active, not recruiting
First Posted : June 1, 2016
Last Update Posted : May 11, 2017
Sponsor:
Collaborators:
Helen Keller International
International Development Research Centre, Canada
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Tim Green, University of British Columbia

Brief Summary:
This project is a delayed pragmatic delayed-intervention cluster randomized control study in a subset of households (n=600) enrolled in a larger scale up program of enhanced homestead food production (EHFP) in Cambodia. The trial is designed to evaluate the impact of EHFP (home gardens only; home garden and fishponds; home gardens and poultry) versus control group on dietary intake of women and youngest child, household food security, income, and production throughout the agricultural cycle. Following administration of the baseline survey 300 households will be randomized to the EHFP package of their choosing (Intervention Group) for two years. The other 300 households will not receive any intervention during the first year and will act as the control group; data will be collected monthly on production and income generated from gardening (and other homestead food production activities) and at two points throughout the year 24-hour dietary recall data will be collected from the women head of the household (aged 15-49y) and the youngest child between the ages of 6 - 59 months. After one year, the control group will be offered the intervention (EHFP package of their choice) fully subsidized and the project team will collect identical data on intervention group for one year as described for the control group.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Food Supply Behavioral: Control group Behavioral: EHFP group Not Applicable

Detailed Description:

Cambodia's economy has improved remarkably in the last decade, yet 80% of households experience some form of poverty, and 20% are severely impoverished. Food insecurity and its sequelae remain a problem, especially among rural farmers. As a solution Helen Keller International (HKI) implements a Enhanced Homestead Food Production (EHFP) model in Cambodia. EHFP, focusing on women farmers, fosters year-round environmentally sustainable production of nutrient-rich fruits, vegetables and animal-source foods. The program provides initial farming inputs coupled with technical assistance, nutrition education, and training on marketing and gender equity.

In 2012, HKI together with the University of British Columbia (UBC), conducted a 22-month randomized control trial of EHFP, known as 'Fish on Farms'. Using HKI's approach, 900 women farmers were randomized to three groups: 1) plant-based EHFP; 2) EHFP plus fishponds; or 3) a control. Remarkably, in less than two years working with women farmers, Fish on Farms established 300 fishponds and 600 gardens. In the fishponds, small nutrient-rich fish were raised for household consumption and larger fish were raised for consumption or sale. After two years, households in both EHFP arms saw improvements in food production, income generation, food security, dietary diversity, and dietary intake of certain micronutrients relative to the control. However, the randomized-control trial (RCT) approach did have a number of issues, and gaps that need to be addressed were identified. Attrition was high, perhaps in part because of better opportunities for women, but also because women were not given a choice in the type of HFP activity to participate in. Further, the project provided many inputs for free so the women were not as invested as they might have otherwise been. Other issues identified were a lack of market access for sale of produce and fish, gender inequities, and a need to better capture the seasonality of food production and consumption at the household level.

Building on lessons learned from the pilot study (Fish on Farms), this pragmatic delayed-intervention cluster randomized control study includes rigorous monitoring of production throughout the agricultural cycle as well as multiple 24-hour dietary recalls with improved methodology and frequency to better capture dietary intake. Women are self-selecting to participate, and are provided access to micro-credit institutions or other cost-sharing options so that women have a greater financial stake in EHFP leading to more successful farmers. Participants will also able to select from more EHFP options that include home gardens, poultry and fish.

The ultimate goal of the program is to provide evidence of an integrated model of EHFP that has scalability and sustainability to improve the livelihoods of Cambodians and possibly the larger region.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 1318 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Prevention
Official Title: Scale up of Enhanced Homestead Food Production for Improved Household Food Security and Nutrition in Cambodia
Study Start Date : April 2016
Estimated Primary Completion Date : March 2018
Estimated Study Completion Date : May 2018

Arm Intervention/treatment
Control group
For year one, this arm will receive no intervention. Usual agriculture production and income will be assessed monthly for one year. Additionally, every season (twice yearly), household food security and usual dietary intake of woman of reproductive age (WRA) and their child aged 6-59 mo will also be collected. After one year of implementation, this group will be offered the Enhanced Homestead Food Production package fully subsidized, as well as training on nutrition, WASH, gender and business/marketing.
Behavioral: Control group
A comparison group; no intervention for year 1, EHFP after 1 year of program implementation.

Experimental: EHFP group
Households will receive training and inputs for an Enhanced Homestead Food Production (EHFP) package. Participants will also receive educational components through inter-personal behavioural change communication on nutrition (Essential Nutrition Actions), Water Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH), gender, and business/marketing.
Behavioral: EHFP group
Intervention group: training; inputs cost-sharing for EHFP activities.




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Difference in mean intake of zinc [ Time Frame: Measurements will be made for women of reproductive age and the youngest child in the household (> 6 mo < 60 mo) at baseline and ~ 7 months later ]
    Sample size was calculated to detect a difference in zinc and vitamin A intake between any two groups, with 80% power and alpha of 0.05, assuming a 30% attrition. Measured by 24 hour dietary recall surveys with repeat recalls on a sub-set of the sample in order to adjust for intra-individual variations in intake and provide an estimate of usual intake.

  2. Difference in mean intake of vitamin A [ Time Frame: Measurements will be made for women of reproductive age aand the youngest child in the household (> 6 mo < 60 mo) at baseline and ~ 7 months later ]
    Sample size was calculated to detect a difference in zinc and vitamin A intake between any two groups, with 80% power and alpha of 0.05, assuming a 30% attrition. Measured by 24 hour dietary recall surveys with repeat recalls on a sub-set of the sample in order to adjust for intra-individual variations in intake and provide an estimate of usual intake.


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Household food security [ Time Frame: Baseline (2016) through to study completion, on average 2 years ]
    Measured with a questionnaire to calculate the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale score. Unit: percentage of households.

  2. Women's empowerment / gender equity [ Time Frame: Baseline (2016) through to study completion, on average 2 years ]
    Measured by questionnaire using the Women's Empowerment in Agriculture Index (WEAI) household decision-making on production and use of money modules. Percentage of women over a calculated score.

  3. Incremental net monetary benefit [ Time Frame: Monthly for 1 year ]
    The economic evaluation of the program will take the form of a cost-benefit analysis from the perspective of the project. Costs will be determined from HKI's budget sheets and input use (resource use) reported by study participants monthly. Benefits will be measured in terms of total kilograms of each variety of food produced over a 12 month period (collected every month) and monetized using local market values that are collected every month.

  4. WASH practices [ Time Frame: Baseline (2016) through to study completion, on average 2 years ]
    Using questionnaire on knowledge, percentage of women giving adequate answer.

  5. Difference in mean energy intake [ Time Frame: Measurements will be made for women of reproductive age and the youngest child in the household (> 6 mo < 60 mo) at baseline and ~ 7 months later ]
    Measured by 24 hour dietary recall surveys with repeat recalls on a sub-set of the sample in order to adjust for intra-individual variations in intake and provide an estimate of usual intake.

  6. Difference in mean protein intake [ Time Frame: Measurements will be made for women of reproductive age and the youngest child in the household (> 6 mo < 60 mo) at baseline and ~ 7 months later ]
    Measured by 24 hour dietary recall surveys with repeat recalls on a sub-set of the sample in order to adjust for intra-individual variations in intake and provide an estimate of usual intake.

  7. Difference in mean fat intake [ Time Frame: Measurements will be made for women of reproductive age and the youngest child in the household (> 6 mo < 60 mo) at baseline and ~ 7 months later ]
    Measured by 24 hour dietary recall surveys with repeat recalls on a sub-set of the sample in order to adjust for intra-individual variations in intake and provide an estimate of usual intake.

  8. Difference in mean riboflavin intake [ Time Frame: Measurements will be made for women of reproductive age and the youngest child in the household (> 6 mo < 60 mo) at baseline and ~ 7 months later ]
    Measured by 24 hour dietary recall surveys with repeat recalls on a sub-set of the sample in order to adjust for intra-individual variations in intake and provide an estimate of usual intake.

  9. Difference in mean thiamin intake [ Time Frame: Measurements will be made for women of reproductive age and the youngest child in the household (> 6 mo < 60 mo) at baseline and ~ 7 months later ]
    Measured by 24 hour dietary recall surveys with repeat recalls on a sub-set of the sample in order to adjust for intra-individual variations in intake and provide an estimate of usual intake.

  10. Difference in mean iron intake [ Time Frame: Measurements will be made for women of reproductive age and the youngest child in the household (> 6 mo < 60 mo) at baseline and ~ 7 months later ]
    Measured by 24 hour dietary recall surveys with repeat recalls on a sub-set of the sample in order to adjust for intra-individual variations in intake and provide an estimate of usual intake.



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Ages Eligible for Study:   6 Months to 59 Months   (Child)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Women of reproductive age (15-49 y)
  • Child aged 6 - 59 months
  • Demonstrate a willingness to cost-share on EHFP inputs
  • Have suitable land for Enhanced Homestead Food Production activities

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Not meeting the above inclusion criteria

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT02786368


Locations
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Canada, British Columbia
Timothy D Green
Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, V6T1Z4
Sponsors and Collaborators
University of British Columbia
Helen Keller International
International Development Research Centre, Canada
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Responsible Party: Tim Green, Principle Investigator, University of British Columbia
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02786368    
Other Study ID Numbers: H15-00720
First Posted: June 1, 2016    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: May 11, 2017
Last Verified: May 2017
Keywords provided by Tim Green, University of British Columbia:
Food Production
Inadequacy
Dietary zinc
Iron
vitamin A