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Efficacy of Three Toothpastes Using an in Situ Caries Model

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02751320
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : April 26, 2016
Results First Posted : October 13, 2017
Last Update Posted : October 13, 2017
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
GlaxoSmithKline

Brief Summary:
This will be a single-centre, randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled, 6-treatment, 4-period crossover, incomplete block design, in situ caries study in healthy adults who wear a removable bilateral mandibular partial denture. The denture will be modified to accommodate 4 gauze-covered specimens of human dental enamel (4x3mm) that have been previously demineralized in vitro to form either S or low-R lesions (2 specimens of each lesion type will be used with each participant). After 14 days of twice daily product use off-site, the 2 S lesion specimens will be removed at the study site, with the remaining 2 low-R lesion specimens removed at the study site after a further 14 days of product use. To determine the remineralization ability of the treatments, all specimens will be analyzed by transverse microradiography (TMR) and enamel fluoride uptake (EFU), with the S lesions additionally analyzed by surface micro hardness (SMH) and the low-R lesions additionally analyzed by quantitative light fluorescence (QLF).

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Dental Caries Drug: 0.425 % w/w phytate,1150ppm F Drug: 0.85 % w/w phytate,1150ppm F Drug: 0.85 % w/w phytate,0.3%ZnCl2 0.5% sodium citrate, 1150ppm F Other: 0 ppm F Drug: 1150ppm F Drug: 0.3%ZnCl2, 0.5% sodium citrate, 1150ppm F Not Applicable

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 58 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Crossover Assignment
Masking: Single (Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Basic Science
Official Title: Clinical Efficacy of Three Experimental Toothpastes Using an in Situ Caries Model
Actual Study Start Date : February 1, 2016
Actual Primary Completion Date : July 1, 2016
Actual Study Completion Date : August 11, 2016

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Experimental Dentifrice1
Participants will brush their natural teeth with a pre-wetted toothbrush and their assigned dentifrice for one timed minute, ensuring the enamel specimens retained within their mouths are not directly brushed. Participants should then rinse their mouths with 15ml of tap water for approximately 10s.
Drug: 0.425 % w/w phytate,1150ppm F
Participants were assigned with 1.5±0.1g twice daily dentifrice for one timed minute.

Experimental: Experimental Dentifrice 2
Participants will brush their natural teeth with a pre-wetted toothbrush and their assigned dentifrice for one timed minute, ensuring the enamel specimens retained within their mouths are not directly brushed. Participants should then rinse their mouths with 15ml of tap water for approximately 10s.
Drug: 0.85 % w/w phytate,1150ppm F
Participants were assigned with 1.5±0.1g twice daily dentifrice for one timed minute.

Experimental: Experimental Dentifrice 3
Participants will brush their natural teeth with a pre-wetted toothbrush and their assigned dentifrice for one timed minute, ensuring the enamel specimens retained within their mouths are not directly brushed. Participants should then rinse their mouths with 15ml of tap water for approximately 10s.
Drug: 0.85 % w/w phytate,0.3%ZnCl2 0.5% sodium citrate, 1150ppm F
Participants were assigned with 1.5±0.1g twice daily dentifrice for one timed minute.

Placebo Comparator: Reference Product 1
Participants will brush their natural teeth with a pre-wetted toothbrush and their assigned dentifrice for one timed minute, ensuring the enamel specimens retained within their mouths are not directly brushed. Participants should then rinse their mouths with 15ml of tap water for approximately 10s.
Other: 0 ppm F
Participants were assigned with 1.5±0.1g twice daily dentifrice for one timed minute.

Active Comparator: Reference Product 2
Participants will brush their natural teeth with a pre-wetted toothbrush and their assigned dentifrice for one timed minute, ensuring the enamel specimens retained within their mouths are not directly brushed. Participants should then rinse their mouths with 15ml of tap water for approximately 10s.
Drug: 1150ppm F
Participants were assigned with 1.5±0.1g twice daily dentifrice for one timed minute.

Active Comparator: Reference Product 3
Participants will brush their natural teeth with a pre-wetted toothbrush and their assigned dentifrice for one timed minute, ensuring the enamel specimens retained within their mouths are not directly brushed. Participants should then rinse their mouths with 15ml of tap water for approximately 10s.
Drug: 0.3%ZnCl2, 0.5% sodium citrate, 1150ppm F
Participants were assigned with 1.5±0.1g twice daily dentifrice for one timed minute.




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Percentage Surface Microhardness Recovery (SMHR) of Phyte (0% 0.425% and 0.85%) at 2 Weeks [ Time Frame: Baseline upto 2 weeks ]
    SMHR test was used to assess the changes in mineralization status of partially demineralized enamel specimens using a Wilson 2100 Hardness tester. SMH was determined by measuring the length of the indentations of enamel specimens. % SMHR was calculated from indentation length (micrometer [μm]) of sound enamel specimen at baseline (B), indentation length (μm) after in vitro demineralization(D), indentation length (μm) after intra-oral exposure (R): [D-R/D-B]*100.


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. % SMHR of 0.85% Phytate Compared to 0% Phytate, in Presence of 1150ppm Fluoride and 0.3% ZnCl2, 0.3% ZnCl2 Compared to 0% ZnCl2 in the Presence of 1150ppm Fluoride and 0.3% ZnCl2 Compared to 0% ZnCl2 in the Presence of 1150ppm Fluoride and 0.85% Phytate [ Time Frame: Baseline upto 2 weeks ]
    SMHR test was used to assess the changes in mineralization status of partially demineralized enamel specimens using a Wilson 2100 Hardness tester. SMH was determined by measuring the length of the indentations of enamel specimens. % SMHR was calculated from indentation length (μm) of sound enamel specimen at baseline (B), indentation length (μm) after in vitro demineralization(D), indentation length (μm) after intra-oral exposure (R): [D-R/D-B]*100.

  2. Transverse Microradiography (TMR) Net Remineralization Change (ΔM) Value of Phytate (0% 0.452% and 0.85%) at 4 Weeks [ Time Frame: Baseline upto 4 weeks ]
    TMR was used to assess changes in the mineral status of partially demineralized enamel specimens. Lesions were analyzed at baseline and Integrated Mineral Loss (∆Z): (∆Z =(lesion depth x 87) - area under the curve [Area under the curve which relates volume % mineral at distances from the specimen surface with respect to section thickness]). After treatment a further section was taken from each lesion specimen for radiography assessment; ∆Z was calculated. The change which occurred in mineral content (∆M) of the lesions as a result of treatment was calculated by: ∆M= (baseline ∆Z - Post-treatment ∆Z).

  3. TMR Δm Value of 0.85% Phytate Compared to 0% Phytate, in the Presence of 1150ppm F and 0.3% ZnCl2, 0.3% ZnCl2 Compared to 0% ZnCl2 in the Presence of 1150ppm F and 0.3% ZnCl2 Compared to 0% ZnCl2 in the Presence of 1150ppm F and 0.85% Phytate [ Time Frame: Baseline upto 4 weeks ]
    TMR was used to assess changes in the mineral status of partially demineralized enamel specimens. Lesions were analyzed at baseline and Integrated Mineral Loss (∆Z): (∆Z =(lesion depth x 87) - area under the curve [Area under the curve which relates volume % mineral at distances from the specimen surface with respect to section thickness]). After treatment a further section was taken from each lesion specimen for radiography assessment; ∆Z was calculated. The change which occurred in mineral content (∆M) of the lesions as a result of treatment was calculated by: ∆M= (baseline ∆Z - Post-treatment ∆Z).

  4. Enamel Fluoride Uptake (EFU) of All Study Formulation Variables [ Time Frame: At Week 2 ]
    The microdrill enamel biopsy technique was used to analyze the fluoride uptake by enamel. Each enamel specimen was mounted on the long axis of a drill attached to a microdrill and drilled to a depth of approximately 100 μm through the entire lesion (four cores per specimen). The enamel powder pooled from four drilling samples was then immediately analyzed for fluoride content using fluoride specific electrode and pH/ion meter. The amount of fluoride-uptake by enamel was calculated based on the amount of fluoride divided by the area of the enamel cores and expressed as μg/cm^2.

  5. Enamel Fluoride Uptake (EFU) of All Study Formulation Variables [ Time Frame: At Week 4 ]
    The microdrill enamel biopsy technique was used to analyze the fluoride uptake by enamel. Each enamel specimen was mounted on the long axis of a drill attached to a microdrill and drilled to a depth of approximately 100 μm through the entire lesion (four cores per specimen). The enamel powder pooled from four drilling samples was then immediately analyzed for fluoride content using fluoride specific electrode and pH/ion meter. The amount of fluoride-uptake by enamel was calculated based on the amount of fluoride divided by the area of the enamel cores and expressed as μg/cm^2.



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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 85 Years   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  1. Demonstrates understanding of the study.
  2. Aged 18 to 85 years.
  3. Understands and is willing, able and likely to comply with all study procedures and restrictions.
  4. Has good general health (in the opinion of the investigator or medically qualified designee).
  5. A salivary flow-rate in the range of normal values (unstimulated whole saliva flow- Rate ≥ 0.2 g/minute (min); gum base stimulated whole saliva flow-Rate ≥ 0.8 g/min).
  6. Currently wearing a removable mandibular partial denture with sufficient room in the posterior buccal flange area to accommodate two enamel specimens.
  7. Have no current active caries or periodontal disease and all restorations in a good state of repair.
  8. Willing and capable of brushing their natural teeth with the lower partial denture in place.

Exclusion Criteria:

  1. Pregnant or breast feeding women.
  2. Known or suspected intolerance or hypersensitivity to the study materials or their stated ingredients.
  3. Currently taking antibiotics or have taken antibiotics in the two weeks prior to the screening visit.
  4. Unable to measure product weights accurately using the assigned study scale as determined by the study staff as demonstrated.
  5. Participation in another clinical study or receipt of an investigational drug within 30 days of the screening visit.
  6. Have received a professional fluoride treatment within 14 days of randomization to the first treatment.
  7. Recent history (within the last year) of alcohol or other substance abuse.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT02751320


Locations
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United States, Indiana
GSK Investigational Site
Indianapolis, Indiana, United States, 46202
Sponsors and Collaborators
GlaxoSmithKline
Investigators
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Study Director: GSK Clinical Trials GlaxoSmithKline

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Responsible Party: GlaxoSmithKline
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02751320     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 202301
First Posted: April 26, 2016    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: October 13, 2017
Last Update Posted: October 13, 2017
Last Verified: July 2017

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Dental Caries
Tooth Demineralization
Tooth Diseases
Stomatognathic Diseases
Citric Acid
Sodium Citrate
Anticoagulants
Calcium Chelating Agents
Chelating Agents
Sequestering Agents
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action