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Evaluation of a Modified Paleolithic Dietary Intervention in the Treatment of Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
 
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02687919
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : February 22, 2016
Results First Posted : August 12, 2019
Last Update Posted : August 12, 2019
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Amanda Irish, University of Iowa

Brief Summary:

This is a research study. The investigators are inviting participants to participate in this research study between the ages of 18-45, who have stable Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS), are able to walk 25 ft with/without an assistive device, and have none of the following: liver disease, kidney disease, diabetes, active heart disease, heart block or arrhythmias, bleeding disorders, concurrent diuretic use, anti-coagulation or anti-platelet use, psychosis or other psychiatric disorder likely to impact ability to comply with study procedures, any change in prescription medication for a mental health problem such as depression or anxiety in the last three months.

The purpose of this research study is to determine whether or not a modified Paleolithic diet results in any change in health in persons with RRMS compared to usual care. The investigators define usual care as the typical or usual physician recommendations for the treatment of RRMS.

The Paleolithic diet (or Paleo diet), also referred to as the caveman diet, Stone Age diet, and hunter-gatherer diet, is a modern nutritional plan based on the presumed ancient diet of wild plants and animals of ancestral humans during the Paleolithic era (a period of about 2.5 million years duration that ended around 10,000 years ago with the development of agriculture). The diet consists mainly of fish, grass-fed pasture raised meats, vegetables, fruit, fungi, roots, and nuts, and excludes grains, legumes, dairy products, salt, refined sugar, and processed oils.

To the investigators' knowledge, most neurologists prescribe medications that may reduce or prevent future disability, but few prescribe dietary modifications unless needed for other concomitant disease.


Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-remitting Other: Modified Paleo diet Not Applicable

Detailed Description:

Initial visit/baseline measures for intervention and control groups (1-2 hrs): Subject Info and Demographics, Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), Blood draw (vitamin B-1 (thiamine), vitamin B-9 (folate), vitamin B-12 (cobalamin), vitamin K, homocysteine, C-reactive protein), MS Functional Composite (MSFC) [Timed 25-Foot Walk (T25-FW), 9-Hole Peg Test (9-HPT), Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT)], 6-minute walk, and Paced Visual Serial Addition Test (PVSAT).

Complete at home/office/other: Automated Self-Administered 24-hour recall application (ASA24).

Two-week run-in for intervention and control groups: Return survey instruments: [Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life-54 (MSQOL-54), Veterans Specific Activity Questionnaire (VSAQ), Medication, Vitamin, and Supplement Log, and Food Diary]. Randomization; training for intervention and control groups (1-2 hrs). Training for the intervention group will involve orientation of subjects to the modified paleo diet and food logging; control group training will consist of study expectations (maintenance of normal diet) and food logging. Both will be conducted by a research team member, with subjects, on an individual basis.

Begin 3-month study: 1 short follow-up call per week, for first three weeks, then every other week thereafter asking intervention and control group subjects if they need assistance with study procedures and providing assistance when needed/possible and ensuring subjects are accurately maintaining daily food log/diary (5 mins; could be longer/shorter depending on subject needs). If a subject (intervention or control arm) is having difficulty filling out the Food Log/Food Diary, he/she will have the opportunity to meet with research team members at a location of the subject's choosing (to include web-conferencing) for supplemental instruction.

At 1 month and few days before returning for the final visit, complete at home/office/other: Automated Self-Administered 24-hour recall application (ASA24).

Final visit* for intervention and control groups (1-2 hrs): Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life-54 (MSQOL-54), Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), Veterans Specific Activity Questionnaire (VSAQ), Medication, Vitamin, and Supplement Log, Food Log, Blood draw (vitamin B-1 (thiamine), vitamin B-9 (folate), vitamin B-12 (cobalamin), vitamin K, homocysteine, C-reactive protein), MS Functional Composite (MSFC) [Timed 25-Foot Walk (T25-FW), 9-Hole Peg Test (9-HPT), Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT)], 6-minute walk, and Paced Visual Serial Addition Test (PVSAT). *End of participation for intervention group or cross-over (from control to 3-month intervention) for interested control group subjects.

If regular in-person meetings are not possible (for two-week recall and/or supplemental instruction), a subject may choose to communicate with research staff via a web conferencing application (Google Hangout). The privacy policy may be found here: http://www.google.com/policies/privacy/ and will be provided to subjects upon request.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 31 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Randomized Control Trial Evaluation of a Modified Paleolithic Dietary Intervention in the Treatment of Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis: A Pilot Study
Study Start Date : October 2012
Actual Primary Completion Date : September 2014
Actual Study Completion Date : October 2014

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine


Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Modified Paleo Diet Intervention (MPDI)
Consumed a modified Paleo diet, described as nine cups of vegetables and some fruits, meat protein including organ meat, and complete abstinence from products containing gluten (wheat, barley, rye, etc.), dairy, potatoes, and legumes (beans, lentils, peanuts, soy, etc.)
Other: Modified Paleo diet
Nine cups of vegetables and some fruits, meat protein including organ meat, and complete abstinence from products containing gluten (wheat, barley, rye, etc.), dairy, potatoes, and legumes (beans, lentils, peanuts, soy, etc.)
Other Name: Modified Paleolithic Diet

No Intervention: Usual Care
Typical physician recommendations for MS.



Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Change in Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS)-9 Score [ Time Frame: End of Study, measured at 3.5 months; Change from Baseline ]

    Specific Aims: 1) Test the hypothesis that a modified Paleolithic diet reduces effects of fatigue in subjects with Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS), compared to controls, in: (a) daily life as measured by the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) score.

    A 9-item sel-report questionnaire related to how fatigue interferes with certain activities and rates its severity, items are scored on a 7 point scale with 1 = strongly disagree and 7= strongly agree. The minimum score is 9 and maximum score is 63. Higher the score indicates greater fatigue severity.


  2. Change in Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) Score [ Time Frame: End of Study, measured at 3.5 months; Change from Baseline ]

    Specific Aims: 1) Test the hypothesis that a modified Paleolithic diet reduces effects of fatigue in subjects with Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS), compared to controls, in: (b) cognitive fatigue as measured by the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) score.

    The PASAT is a measure of cognitive function that assesses auditory information processing speed and flexibility, as well as calculation ability. The PASAT is presented using audio to ensure standardization in the rate of stimulus presentation. Single digits are presented every 3 seconds and the patient must add each new digit to the one immediately prior to it. The score for the PASAT (0-60) is the total number correct out of 60 possible answers.


  3. Change in 6-minute Walk (6-MW) Distance [ Time Frame: End of Study, 3.5 months; Change from Baseline ]

    Specific Aims: 1) Test the hypothesis that a modified Paleolithic diet reduces effects of fatigue in subjects with Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS), compared to controls, in: (c) physical fatigue as measured by the 6-minute (m) walk (6-MW).

    Timed 6-minute walk (6-MW): a submaximal measure of gait velocity and endurance over a distance (m) walked in 6 minutes.


  4. Change in (25-FW) 25-ft Walk Time [ Time Frame: End of Study, measured at 3.5 months; Change from Baseline ]

    Specific Aims: 1) Test the hypothesis that a modified Paleolithic diet reduces effects of fatigue in subjects with Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS), compared to controls, in: (d) physical fatigue as measured by the 25-ft walk (25-FW; (s).

    Timed 25-Foot Walk (T25-FW): a quantitative test of maximal walking velocity, mobility, dynamic balance and leg function. The subject is directed to one end of a clearly marked 25-foot course and is instructed to walk 25 feet as quickly and as safely, as possible. The time is recorded from the first step across the line and ends when the patient crosses the same foot over the 25-foot mark. The task is immediately administered again by having the patient walk back the same distance. Patients may use assistive devices when doing this task.



Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Quality of Life (MSQOL-54) [ Time Frame: End of Study, measured at 3.5 months; Change from Baseline ]

    Test the hypothesis that a modified Paleolithic diet improves general well-being/health and quality of life of RRMS patients, compared to controls, as measured by: Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life-54 (MSQOL-54) Mental and Physical Health scores.

    Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life-54 (MSQOL-54): a multidimensional health-related quality of life survey that combines both generic and MS-specific items into a single instrument. Higher scores (0-100) indicate improved health.


  2. Quality of Life (Vitamin B-1 Blood Serum Measures) [ Time Frame: End of Study, measured at 3.5 months; Change from Baseline ]
    Test the hypothesis that a modified Paleolithic diet improves general well-being/health and quality of life of RRMS patients, compared to controls, as measured by vitamin B-1 (thiamine) blood serum measures.

  3. Quality of Life (Vitamin B-9 Blood Serum Measures) [ Time Frame: End of Study, measured at 3.5 months; Change from Baseline ]
    Test the hypothesis that a modified Paleolithic diet improves general well-being/health and quality of life of RRMS patients, compared to controls, as measured by vitamin B-9 (folate) blood serum measures.

  4. Quality of Life (Vitamins B-12 and K Blood Serum Measures) [ Time Frame: End of Study, measured at 3.5 months; Change from Baseline ]
    Test the hypothesis that a modified Paleolithic diet improves general well-being/health and quality of life of RRMS patients, compared to controls, as measured by blood serum measures: vitamin B-12 (cobalamin) and vitamin K.

  5. Quality of Life (Homocysteine Blood Serum Measures) [ Time Frame: End of Study, measured at 3.5 months; Change from Baseline ]
    Test the hypothesis that a modified Paleolithic diet improves general well-being/health and quality of life of RRMS patients, compared to controls, as measured by homocysteine (HCY) blood serum measures.

  6. Quality of Life (C-reactive Protein Blood Serum Measures) [ Time Frame: End of Study, measured at 3.5 months; Change from Baseline ]
    Test the hypothesis that a modified Paleolithic diet improves general well-being/health and quality of life of RRMS patients, compared to controls, as measured by C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) blood serum measures.

  7. Quality of Life (9-HPT) [ Time Frame: End of Study, measured at 3.5 months; Change from Baseline ]

    Test the hypothesis that a modified Paleolithic diet improves general well-being/health and quality of life of RRMS patients, compared to controls, as measured by the 9-Hole Peg Test (9-HPT).

    9-Hole Peg Test: a brief, standardized, quantitative test of upper extremity function. The patient is seated at a table with a small, shallow container holding nine pegs and a wood or plastic block containing nine empty holes (Rolyan 9-Hole Peg Test Kit - Model A8515). On a start command a stopwatch is started, the patient picks up the nine pegs one at a time as quickly as possible, puts them in the nine holes, and, once they are in the holes, removes them again as quickly as possible one at a time, replacing them into the shallow container. The total time to complete the task is recorded. Two consecutive trials with the dominant hand are immediately followed by two consecutive trials with the non-dominant hand. The score for the 9-HPT is an average of the two trials for each hand.


  8. Quality of Life (VSAQ) [ Time Frame: End of Study, measured at 3.5 months; Change from Baseline ]

    Test the hypothesis that a modified Paleolithic diet improves general well-being/health and quality of life of RRMS patients, compared to controls, as measured by the Veterans Specific Activity Questionnaire (VSAQ).

    Veterans Specific Activity Questionnaire (VSAQ): a self-reported survey instrument that serves as a strong predictor of both measured and predicted exercise capacity. Subjects identify a series of activities that they can complete on a typical day (scaled 1-11 for estimated metabolic equivalents (METs)), higher METs indicate increased exercise capacity.




Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.


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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 45 Years   (Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  1. Verified diagnosis of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) with no change in medications in the prior three months.
  2. Able to ambulate a minimum of 25 feet with/without use of an assistive device.

Exclusion Criteria:

  1. Under the age of 18 or over the age of 45 at the beginning of the study.
  2. Unstable MS, requiring a change in medication in the prior 3 months.
  3. Unwillingness to contact, or allow research to contact, neurologist for verification of RRMS diagnosis.
  4. Psychosis or other psychiatric disorder likely to impact ability to comply with study procedures.
  5. Change in prescriptions medication in the prior three months for a mental health problem such as depression or anxiety.
  6. Active malignancy undergoing treatment (not including non melanoma skin cancers).
  7. Subjects with liver disease, kidney disease, diabetes, active heart disease, heart block or arrhythmias, bleeding disorders, concurrent diuretic use, anti-coagulation or anti-platelet use.
  8. Abnormal bleeding disorder.
  9. On any "diet" recommended to treat MS (ex: Best Bet, Swank, McDougall, MS Recovery diet, Wahls', other Paleolithic, gluten-free, vegetarian, and/or vegan
  10. Inability to maintain food log for for seven consecutive days during the run-in phase of the study.
  11. Not comfortable using a computer.
  12. Other failure to demonstrate compliance.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT02687919


Locations
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United States, Iowa
University of Iowa
Iowa City, Iowa, United States, 52241
Sponsors and Collaborators
Amanda Irish
Investigators
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Principal Investigator: Amanda K Irish University of Iowa

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Responsible Party: Amanda Irish, Principle Investigator, University of Iowa
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02687919    
Other Study ID Numbers: 201208703
First Posted: February 22, 2016    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: August 12, 2019
Last Update Posted: August 12, 2019
Last Verified: July 2019
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: Yes
Plan Description: Data from this study are complex and housed in different formats, but are available by contacting the corresponding author.
Keywords provided by Amanda Irish, University of Iowa:
diet (gluten-free)
diet therapy
quality of life
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Multiple Sclerosis
Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting
Sclerosis
Pathologic Processes
Demyelinating Autoimmune Diseases, CNS
Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous System
Nervous System Diseases
Demyelinating Diseases
Autoimmune Diseases
Immune System Diseases