Impact of Egg Consumption on Carotenoid and Vitamin D Bioavailability in Pre- and Post-menopausal Women
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|ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02679794|
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : February 10, 2016
Last Update Posted : January 11, 2018
|Condition or disease||Intervention/treatment||Phase|
|Menopause||Behavioral: Egg consumption Behavioral: Control||Not Applicable|
The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans emphasizes consumption of 4.5 cups of fruits and vegetables daily. However, US adults only consume on average 2.6 cups of fruits and vegetables daily. This low consumption may further result in the limited availability of fat soluble, health-promoting, phytochemicals such as carotenoids (CAT) from these foods. Dietary CAT have beneficial biological properties including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects and scientific research supports the protective effects of CAT against many degenerative diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, age-related macular degeneration, and some types of cancer. Therefore, either low intake or inefficient bioavailability of CAT from fruits and vegetables may reduce their potential effectiveness to retard or prevent disease. Recently completed randomized and crossover study found that co-consuming 150g (3 eggs) of scrambled whole eggs (SWE) which contains18g of lipid, increases overall CAT absorption from a mixed-vegetable salad >7-fold compared to a the same salad without eggs (3g of co-consumed lipid) in young healthy men. However, the occurrence of this benefit in women and older adults is unknown. Aging may affect CAT bioavailability due to age-induced physiological changes including reduced gastrointestinal tract function and modifications of chylomicron metabolism. Eggs are known to be a highly bioavailable source of CAT, presumably due to the presence of lipid and phospholipid in egg yolk. The highly bioavailable nature of CAT from eggs suggest that egg-derived factors may be leveraged to improve bioavailability of other CAT found in co-consumed vegetables. While promising, very limited data exist on the impact of a co-consumed food source of lipid to enhance CAT absorption in women or in older adults.
Vitamin D (VIT D) insufficiency is widespread with nearly 2/3 of Americans not meeting the current Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendation for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration. VIT D has an essential function to regulate calcium homeostasis, including stimulating calcium's active intestinal absorption and renal excretion. Thus, maintaining adequate VIT D status is critical for overall skeletal health and the prevention of osteoporosis. Post-menopausal women are at high risk of having osteoporosis and this risk is reduced when adequate VIT D status is maintained. VIT D is fat-soluble and only a limited number of foods naturally contain it. Also, while VIT D absorption is enhanced by dietary lipid, the optimal amount of lipid required for maximal absorption has not been determined. A paucity of data exists regarding the effect of a co-consumed food source of lipid to enhance VIT D absorption and the impact of aging on VIT D bioavailability in women.
|Study Type :||Interventional (Clinical Trial)|
|Actual Enrollment :||20 participants|
|Intervention Model:||Crossover Assignment|
|Official Title:||Impact of Egg Consumption on Carotenoid and Vitamin D Bioavailability in Pre- and Post-menopausal Women|
|Actual Study Start Date :||December 2015|
|Actual Primary Completion Date :||May 2017|
|Actual Study Completion Date :||August 2017|
Experimental: Egg consumption
Consuming sautéed vegetables and 3g canola oil with 100g (2 large eggs) of whole eggs
Behavioral: Egg consumption
Subjects will consume a carefully portioned sautéed vegetables and 3g canola oil with 100g (2 large eggs) of whole eggs
Placebo Comparator: Control
Consuming sautéed vegetables and 3g canola oil without eggs
Subjects will consume a carefully portioned sautéed vegetables and 3g canola oil.
- Contents of total and individual carotenoids in triglyceride-rich lipoprotein fractions [ Time Frame: From hour 0 to hour 10 ]composite 0-10 h area under the curve of total and individual carotenoids (lutein, zeaxanthin, alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lycopene) in triglyceride-rich lipoprotein fractions (all units are nmol/L x 10 hours)
- Vitamin D content in in triglyceride-rich lipoprotein fractions [ Time Frame: From hour 0 to hour 10 ]composite 0-10 h area under the curve of vitamin D2, vitamin D3, 25(OH)D2, and 25(OH)D3 in triglyceride-rich lipoprotein fractions (all units are nmol/L x 10 hours)
To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT02679794
|United States, Indiana|
|Purdue Clinical Research Center|
|West Lafayette, Indiana, United States, 47907|
|Principal Investigator:||Wayne W Campbell, Ph.D.||Purdue University|