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Pilot Study of the Safety/Efficacy of Combination Checkpoint Blockade + External Beam Radiotherapy in Stage IV Melanoma

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
 
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02659540
Recruitment Status : Active, not recruiting
First Posted : January 20, 2016
Results First Posted : January 2, 2020
Last Update Posted : January 2, 2020
Sponsor:
Collaborators:
Bristol-Myers Squibb
Conquer Cancer Foundation
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research

Brief Summary:
This is an ongoing, Phase 1, open-label, multicenter, pilot study of the checkpoint antibodies ipilimumab and nivolumab in combination with radiotherapy (RT) in 18 subjects with unresectable Stage IV melanoma. The primary study objective is to evaluate the safety of study treatment. Secondary objectives are to evaluate objective response rate (ORR) and disease control rate (DCR) at Weeks 12 and 18, duration of response, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS).

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Melanoma Drug: Nivolumab Drug: Ipilimumab Radiation: Radiotherapy Phase 1

Detailed Description:

All subjects received concurrent ipilimumab (3 mg/kg) and nivolumab (1 mg/kg) every 3 weeks for 4 doses (i.e., Weeks 1, 4, 7 and 10), followed by nivolumab monotherapy administered at a dose of 240 mg every 2 weeks through Week 18. Continued nivolumab monotherapy was permitted beyond Week 18 at the Investigator's discretion as either 240 mg every 2 weeks or 480 mg every 4 weeks starting at Week 20. Extracranial RT was initiated after the first dose and before the second dose of immunotherapy, with RT dosing administered to a target lesion as follows:

  • Cohort A: conventional total palliative dose of 30 Gy delivered over 2 weeks in 10 fractions of 3 Gy each;
  • Cohort B: hypofractionated high-dose of 27 Gy delivered over 2 weeks in 3 fractions of 9 Gy each.

Eligible subjects were initially enrolled into Cohort A. After 9 evaluable subjects completed at least the first 2 cycles of concurrent ipilimumab and nivolumab treatment, a safety review was performed and determined that the safety of Cohort A was acceptable based on a protocol-specified tolerability threshold of ≤ 7 of 9 subjects experiencing Grade 3 or 4 drug- or radiation-related adverse events (AEs), where Grade 3 or 4 amylase or lipase abnormalities that were not associated with clinical symptoms were not included in the safety assessment. Additional subjects were then accrued to Cohort B.

Subjects were followed on study for 100 days after the last study drug administration. Post-study follow-up, which occurs at least every 12 (± 1) weeks for 3 years after completion of the 100-day on-study follow-up, is still being performed for some patients .

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 20 participants
Allocation: Non-Randomized
Intervention Model: Sequential Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Pilot (Phase 1) Study to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of Combination Checkpoint Blockade (Ipilimumab and Nivolumab) Plus External Beam Radiotherapy in Subjects With Stage IV Melanoma
Actual Study Start Date : October 13, 2016
Actual Primary Completion Date : December 2018
Estimated Study Completion Date : December 2021

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

MedlinePlus Genetics related topics: Melanoma
MedlinePlus related topics: Melanoma

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Cohort A (Conventional RT)
Subjects received concurrent ipilimumab (3 mg/kg) and nivolumab (1 mg/kg) every 3 weeks for 4 doses (i.e., Weeks 1, 4, 7 and 10), followed by nivolumab monotherapy administered at a dose of 240 mg every 2 weeks through Week 18. Continued nivolumab monotherapy was permitted beyond Week 18 at the Investigator's discretion as either 240 mg every 2 weeks or 480 mg every 4 weeks starting at Week 20. Extracranial RT was initiated after the first dose and before the second dose of immunotherapy and was administered to a target lesion at a conventional total palliative dose of 30 Gy delivered over 2 weeks in 10 fractions of 3 Gy each.
Drug: Nivolumab
Nivolumab was administered as an intravenous (IV) infusion over approximately 30 or 90 minutes, with dosing calculated using body weight.
Other Name: Opdivo

Drug: Ipilimumab
Ipilimumab was administered as an IV infusion over approximately 30 or 90 minutes, with dosing calculated using body weight. The ipilimumab infusion was initiated approximately 30 minutes after the end of the nivolumab infusion on applicable dosing days.
Other Name: Yervoy

Radiation: Radiotherapy
RT was delivered in accordance with cohort assignment and institutional practices.

Experimental: Cohort B (Hypofractionated RT)
Subjects received concurrent ipilimumab (3 mg/kg) and nivolumab (1 mg/kg) every 3 weeks for 4 doses (i.e., Weeks 1, 4, 7 and 10), followed by nivolumab monotherapy administered at a dose of 240 mg every 2 weeks through Week 18. Continued nivolumab monotherapy was permitted beyond Week 18 at the Investigator's discretion as either 240 mg every 2 weeks or 480 mg every 4 weeks starting at Week 20. Extracranial RT was initiated after the first dose and before the second dose of immunotherapy and was administered to a target lesion at a hypofractionated high-dose of 27 Gy delivered over 2 weeks in 3 fractions of 9 Gy each.
Drug: Nivolumab
Nivolumab was administered as an intravenous (IV) infusion over approximately 30 or 90 minutes, with dosing calculated using body weight.
Other Name: Opdivo

Drug: Ipilimumab
Ipilimumab was administered as an IV infusion over approximately 30 or 90 minutes, with dosing calculated using body weight. The ipilimumab infusion was initiated approximately 30 minutes after the end of the nivolumab infusion on applicable dosing days.
Other Name: Yervoy

Radiation: Radiotherapy
RT was delivered in accordance with cohort assignment and institutional practices.




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Number of Subjects With Treatment-emergent Adverse Events (TEAEs) [ Time Frame: Up to 25 months ]
    Toxicity was graded in accordance with the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE), version 4.03. Adverse events (AEs) were reported based on clinical laboratory tests, vital signs, physical examinations, and any other medically indicated assessments, including subject interviews, from the time informed consent was signed through 100 days after the last dose of study treatment. Treatment-emergent AEs were those that occurred or worsened after administration of the first dose of study treatment.


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Number of Subjects With Tumor Response at Week 12 by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors Version 1.1 (RECIST 1.1) [ Time Frame: 12 weeks ]
    Tumor responses were evaluated using appropriate imaging and categorized according to RECIST 1.1 at Screening (up to 28 days before the first dose of study treatment), at Weeks 12, 18, and 24, and every 12 weeks (± 7 days) thereafter until progression or start of alternate anticancer therapy. Per RECIST 1.1, target lesions are categorized as follows: Complete Response (CR): Disappearance of all target lesions; Partial Response (PR): ≥ 30% decrease in the sum of the longest diameter of target lesions; Progressive Disease (PD): ≥ 20% increase in the sum of the longest diameter of target lesions; Stable Disease (SD): small changes that do not meet above criteria (Eisenhauer et al. Eur J Cancer 2009;45:228-47).

  2. Number of Subjects With Tumor Response at Week 18 by RECIST 1.1 [ Time Frame: 18 weeks ]
    Tumor responses were evaluated using appropriate imaging and categorized according to RECIST 1.1 at Screening (up to 28 days before the first dose of study treatment), at Weeks 12, 18, and 24, and every 12 weeks (± 7 days) thereafter until progression or start of alternate anticancer therapy. Per RECIST 1.1, target lesions are categorized as follows: CR: Disappearance of all target lesions; PR: ≥ 30% decrease in the sum of the longest diameter of target lesions; PD: ≥ 20% increase in the sum of the longest diameter of target lesions; SD: small changes that do not meet above criteria (Eisenhauer et al. Eur J Cancer 2009;45:228-47).

  3. Number of Subjects With Tumor Response at Week 12 by Immune-related Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (irRECIST) [ Time Frame: 12 weeks ]
    Tumor responses were evaluated using appropriate imaging and categorized according to irRECIST at Screening (up to 28 days before the first dose of study treatment), at Weeks 12, 18, and 24, and every 12 weeks (± 7 days) thereafter until progression or start of alternate anticancer therapy. Per irRECIST, measurable lesions are categorized as follows: irCR: Complete disappearance of all target lesions; irPR: ≥ 30% decrease from baseline in the total measurable tumor burden (TMTB); irPD: ≥ 20% increase from nadir in TMTB; irSD: not meeting above criteria (Bohnsack et al. Ann Oncol 2014;25: iv361-iv72).

  4. Number of Subjects With Tumor Response at Week 18 by irRECIST [ Time Frame: 18 weeks ]
    Tumor responses were evaluated using appropriate imaging and categorized according to irRECIST at Screening (up to 28 days before the first dose of study treatment), at Weeks 12, 18, and 24, and every 12 weeks (± 7 days) thereafter until progression or start of alternate anticancer therapy. Per irRECIST, measurable lesions are categorized as follows: irCR: Complete disappearance of all target lesions; irPR: ≥ 30% decrease from baseline in the TMTB; irPD: ≥ 20% increase from nadir in TMTB; irSD: not meeting above criteria (Bohnsack et al. Ann Oncol 2014;25: iv361-iv72).

  5. Duration of Response [ Time Frame: Up to 3 years post-study ]
    Duration of response will be determined for each subject with time origin at the first occurrence of response until the first occurrence of progression or date of death if the subject dies due to any causes before progression. Every effort will be made to follow subjects for progression after they discontinue the study.

  6. Progression-free Survival [ Time Frame: Up to 3 years post-study ]
    Progression-free survival will be defined as the number of days from the date of first dose of study drug to the date of earliest disease progression or to the date of death, if disease progression does not occur. Subjects who do not progress and are still alive will be censored on the date of last follow-up or start of new treatment, whichever comes first. Every effort will be made to follow subjects for progression after they discontinue the study.

  7. Overall Survival [ Time Frame: Up to 3 years post-study ]
    Overall survival (OS) will be measured for each subject from the date of the first dose of study drug until the recorded date of death or last follow-up. Subjects who are still alive will be censored on the date of last follow-up. Every effort will be made to follow subjects for OS after they discontinue the study.



Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  1. Histologic diagnosis of Stage IV metastatic melanoma, with 1 melanoma lesion that could be safely irradiated and, in the opinion of the radiation oncologist, was of benefit to the subject to irradiate (note: subjects with primary ocular and mucosal melanoma were permitted). Lesions may have included, but were not limited to:

    1. Symptomatic lymphadenopathy;
    2. Bothersome cutaneous disease;
    3. Hepatic metastases;
    4. Pulmonary metastases.
  2. Excluding the lesion intended to undergo radiation, subjects must have had at least 1 unresectable, non-bony lesion that was measurable radiographically (based on Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors [RECIST] 1.1).
  3. Any number of prior therapies (including none). For subjects who had received prior systemic treatment with cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4), programmed cell death-1 (PD-1), and/or programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) therapy, the last monoclonal antibody administration should have been no less than 4 weeks prior to start of this protocol therapy and all prior side effects must have resolved to grade 1 or less by the time of the start of this protocol therapy.
  4. Subjects must have:

    • Completed investigational therapy, other immunotherapy, or prior RT at least 28 days before administration of the first dose of study drug(s)
    • Completed chemotherapy or targeted therapy at least 14 days before administration of the first dose of study drug(s)
    • Sufficiently recovered from prior surgery as determined by the treating Investigator.

    Clinically significant toxicity or pharmacodynamic effects experienced during any prior therapy must have been resolved or stabilized before the first dose of study drug(s).

  5. Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 0-1.
  6. Life expectancy ≥ 4 months.
  7. Screening laboratory parameters:

    1. White blood cell count ≥ 2000/μL;
    2. Absolute neutrophil count ≥ 1500/μL;
    3. Platelets ≥ 100,000/μL;
    4. Hemoglobin ≥ 9 g/dL;
    5. Aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase ≤ 3 × upper limit of normal (ULN);
    6. Total bilirubin ≤ 1.5 × ULN (< 3 mg/dL for subjects with Gilbert's disease);
    7. Serum creatinine ≤ 1.5 x ULN or creatinine clearance (CrCl) ≥ 40 mL/min (if using the Cockcroft-Gault formula below):

      • Female CrCl = [(140 - age in years) x weight in kg x 0.85] / [72 x serum creatinine in mg/dL];
      • Male CrCl = [(140 - age in years) x weight in kg x 1.00] / [72 x serum creatinine in mg/dL].
  8. Age ≥ 18 years.
  9. Able and willing to give valid written informed consent.

Exclusion Criteria:

  1. Unresolved immune-related AEs following prior biological therapy. Subjects with asymptomatic endocrinopathy may have enrolled.
  2. Active autoimmune disease or any condition requiring systemic treatment with either corticosteroids (>10 mg daily of prednisone equivalents) or other immunosuppressive medications within 14 days of study drug administration. Inhaled or topical steroids and adrenal replacement doses > 10 mg daily prednisone equivalents were permitted in the absence of active autoimmune disease.
  3. History of motor neuropathy considered to be of autoimmune origin (e.g., Guillain-Barre Syndrome, Myasthenia Gravis).
  4. Other active, concurrent malignancy that required ongoing systemic treatment or interfered with radiographic assessment of melanoma response as determined by the Investigator.
  5. Active brain metastases or leptomeningeal metastases. Subjects with brain metastases were eligible if metastases had been treated and there was no magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evidence of progression for 4 weeks or more after treatment was completed and within 28 days prior to the first dose of nivolumab administration. There must also have been no requirement for immunosuppressive doses of systemic corticosteroids (> 10 mg/day prednisone equivalents) for at least 2 weeks prior to study drug administration.
  6. Known immunodeficiency or human immunodeficiency virus, Hepatitis B, or Hepatitis C positivity. Antibody to Hepatitis B or C without evidence of active infection may have been allowed.
  7. History of severe allergic reactions to any unknown allergens or any components of the study drugs.
  8. Other serious illnesses (e.g., serious infections requiring antibiotics, bleeding disorders).
  9. Requirement of RT to treat brain metastases or receipt of any non-study systemic therapy for cancer or any other experimental/investigational treatment.
  10. Mental impairment that may have compromised the ability to give informed consent and comply with the requirements of the study.
  11. Lack of availability for immunological and clinical assessments or post-study follow-up contact to determine relapse and survival.
  12. Women who were breastfeeding or who were pregnant as evidenced by a positive serum pregnancy test (minimum sensitivity 25 IU/L or equivalent units of human chorionic gonadotropin) performed within 14 days of the first dose of study drug and by a urine pregnancy test (minimum sensitivity 25 IU/L or equivalent units of human chorionic gonadotropin) within 24 hours of the first dose of study drug(s).
  13. Females of childbearing potential who were sexually active with a nonsterilized male partner must have used 2 methods of effective contraception from screening, and must have agreed to continue using such precautions for 23 weeks after the final dose of investigational product; cessation of birth control after this point should have been discussed with a responsible physician. Periodic abstinence, the rhythm method, and the withdrawal method were not acceptable methods of birth control.

    [Females of childbearing potential were defined as those who were not surgically sterile (i.e., bilateral tubal ligation, bilateral oophorectomy, or complete hysterectomy) or postmenopausal (defined as 12 months with no menses without an alternative medical cause).] Nonsterilized males who were sexually active with a female partner of childbearing potential must have used 2 acceptable methods of effective contraception from Day 1 and for 31 weeks after receipt of the final dose of investigational product.

  14. Any condition that, in the clinical judgment of the treating physician, was likely to interfere with the interpretability of the data or prevent the subject from complying with any aspect of the protocol or that may have put the subject at unacceptable risk.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT02659540


Locations
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United States, California
Stanford Cancer Institute
Stanford, California, United States, 94304
United States, New York
Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center
New York, New York, United States, 10065
Sponsors and Collaborators
Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research
Bristol-Myers Squibb
Conquer Cancer Foundation
Investigators
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Study Chair: Michael Postow, MD Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center
  Study Documents (Full-Text)

Documents provided by Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research:
Publications:
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Responsible Party: Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02659540    
Other Study ID Numbers: LUD2015-006
First Posted: January 20, 2016    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: January 2, 2020
Last Update Posted: January 2, 2020
Last Verified: December 2019
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: No

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Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: Yes
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No
Keywords provided by Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research:
Ipilimumab
Nivolumab
Radiotherapy
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Melanoma
Neuroendocrine Tumors
Neuroectodermal Tumors
Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal
Neoplasms by Histologic Type
Neoplasms
Neoplasms, Nerve Tissue
Nevi and Melanomas
Nivolumab
Ipilimumab
Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological
Antineoplastic Agents