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Treating Earthquake in Nepal Trauma (TENT) Trial 2016 (TENT2016)

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT02598024
Recruitment Status : Unknown
Verified November 2015 by Suraj Shakya, Nepalese Psychological Association.
Recruitment status was:  Not yet recruiting
First Posted : November 5, 2015
Last Update Posted : November 10, 2015
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Suraj Shakya, Nepalese Psychological Association

Brief Summary:
The purpose of this study is to determine whether two types of short-term trauma-focused therapies (individual Narrative Exposure Therapy and group-based Control-Focused Behavioural Treatment) are effective in the treatment of chronic PTSD in earthquake survivors of Nepal.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Behavioral: Narrative Exposure Therapy Behavioral: Control Focused Behavioural Treatment Not Applicable

Detailed Description:

Background: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common mental health disorder after natural disasters. Without treatment survivors of earthquake would continue suffering from PTSD for many years. There are not many short-term trauma-focused psychosocial therapies that have been examined after natural disasters in developing countries. This study investigates the effectiveness of a 4-session revised narrative exposure therapy (NET-R), and 2-session group-based control-focused behavioural treatment (CFBT-R) delivered by non-specialists with minimum supervision.

Methods/Design: Participants would be identified and recruited through a door-to-door survey of families severely affected by the 2015 earthquake in Bhaktpur municipality of Nepal. PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) will be used to screen all adult survivors (aged 18 and above) for the possible presence of PTSD, and the CAPS-5 interview will be used for the diagnosis of current PTSD. Investigators aim to include 240 consenting participants in a single blind randomised controlled clinical trial. All participants will be randomly allocated to one of three treatment conditions (N = 80 each): 4-session revised narrative exposure therapy (NET-R), 2-session group-based control-focused behavioural treatment (CFBT-R) involving instructions to conduct self-exposure, or a 3-month waiting list. In both NET-R and CFBT-R interventions, treatment sessions will last 90 minutes; NET-R will be delivered within a week while CFBT-R will be done over 2 weeks. All participants will be subjected to blind assessments for PTSD symptom severity with CAPS-5 and Fear and Avoidance questionnaire at pre-treatment (T0) and 3-month post-treatment (T1).

Discussion: The results from the post-treatment measurement would provide strong empirical reference of the safety and effectiveness of trauma-focused short-term therapies (NET-R and CFBT-R) for mass trauma survivors in developing countries like Nepal. It may also provide information on who may benefit most from which type of intervention.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Estimated Enrollment : 240 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Single (Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: The Effectiveness of 4-session Narrative Exposure Therapy and 2-session Group Control-focused Behavioural Treatment on PTSD in Nepal Earthquake Survivors After 12 Months: Study Protocol for the Randomised Waiting-list Controlled Trial
Study Start Date : March 2016
Estimated Primary Completion Date : October 2016
Estimated Study Completion Date : October 2016

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

MedlinePlus related topics: Earthquakes

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Narrative Exposure Therapy (NET-R)
Revised Narrative Exposure Therapy (NET-R) is a 4-session manual-based treatment, each session lasting 60-90-minutes, and first three sessions delivered daily and the last session after a gap of 1-2 days
Behavioral: Narrative Exposure Therapy
In Narrative Exposure Therapy the patient constructs a narration of his or her life, focusing on the detailed context of the traumatic experiences as well as on the important elements of the emotional networks and how they go together. This process allows the majority of persons to recognise that the fear/trauma structure results from past experiences and that its activation is just a memory. They thus lose the emotional response to the recollection of the traumatic events, which consequently leads to a remission of PTSD symptoms. Thus, they gain access to 'lost' past memories and develop a sense of coherence, control, and integration. Revised Narrative Exposure Therapy (NET-R, Zang et al, 2013) is a 4-session treatment delivered within a week.

Experimental: Control Focused Behavioural Treatment
CFBT is an intervention to facilitate natural recovery process by restoring sense of control over anxiety, fear, or distress. For this study in Nepal, a monitoring session will be added to the one-session group CFBT used by Basoglu and Salcioglu (2011), and the revised CFBT would be delivered to groups of 20-30 survivors. Each treatment session would be delivered within 1- 2 hours (90 minutes on average), at the interval of two weeks.
Behavioral: Control Focused Behavioural Treatment
The Control-focused Behavioural Treatment (CFBT, Başoğlu et al 2005) for earthquake survivors was designed after 1999 Turkey earthquake as an intervention to facilitate natural recovery processes by restoring sense of control over anxiety, fear, or distress. Its underlying principle is to reduce helplessness responses by encouraging behaviours that are likely to enhance sense of control over stressor events and life in general. Its primary aim is to reverse traumatic stress processes by increasing anxiety or distress tolerance. In earthquake survivors, CFBT involves a single session in most cases and an additional few sessions in cases that do not respond to the initial session.

No Intervention: Waiting List Control
The waiting list participants will receive the treatment of choice (NET-R or CBFT-R) after 3 months.

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Change from Baseline Symptom severity of PTSD as measured by PCL-5 [ Time Frame: Pre-treatment (T0), 2-week post-treatment (T1) and at three-month follow-up (T2) ]
    The PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5; Weathers et al, 2013) is a 20-item self-report measure that assesses the 20 DSM-5 symptoms of PTSD. A total symptom severity score (range - 0-80) can be obtained by summing up the scores for each of the 20 items. The VA National Centre for PTSD has suggested a cut off score of 38 to screen for PTSD.

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. WHO Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS 2) [ Time Frame: Pre-treatment (T0), 2-week post-treatment (T1) and at three-month follow-up (T2) ]
    WHODAS 2 measures disability related to a health condition.

  2. Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL-25) [ Time Frame: Pre-treatment (T0), 2-week post-treatment (T1) and at three-month follow-up (T2) ]
    HSCL is a 25-item instrument to measure depression using DSM-IV criteria.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Age 18 and over
  • Must have a diagnosis of PTSD according to DSM-5 criteria with a Clinically-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS-5); during the screening, participants will be asked to report on traumatic events that fulfil DSM-5 criterion 'A'.
  • The PTSD symptoms must be a result of the Nepal earthquake in April 2015

Exclusion Criteria:

  • High suicidality (Yes to the question "Have you recently had thoughts of ending your life and made any plans to this effect?)
  • People with severe degree of prolonged grief (Grief Score of 25 or more on the Grief Assessment Scale, adapted from Prigerson et al., 1999)
  • Severe intellectual impairment, being unable to communicate and dependent on others for daily living (i.e. suffering from severe Learning disability)

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT02598024

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Contact: Suraj Shakya, MA +977 1 4281529
Contact: Arun Jha, FRCPsych +44-1442-215060

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Nepalese Psychological Association
Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal
Sponsors and Collaborators
Nepalese Psychological Association
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Study Director: Arun K Jha, FRCPsych Hertfordshire Partnership University NHS Foundation Trust, UK
Study Chair: Sabitri Sthapit, PhD Nepalese Psychological Society