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Building Wealth and Health Network: A Microfinance/TANF Demonstration Project

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
 
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02577705
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : October 16, 2015
Last Update Posted : February 1, 2017
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Mariana Chilton, PhD, MPH, Drexel University

Brief Summary:

The goals of the The Building Wealth and Health Network (The Network) are to develop and rigorously test an asset building model that will build financial, social and human capital through asset building, financial education and trauma-informed peer support. Program components include: 1) Matched savings accounts; 2) Financial literacy classes; and 3) Peer support groups using the Sanctuary ® trauma-informed approach to social services. This program is offered in partnership with the Department of Public Welfare of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. The program elements will fulfill work requirements for the program called temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF).

The hypothesis is that the program's combination of services will result in improved economic security through boosting income, increasing assets, and building a supportive social network, that then translates to better health outcomes.


Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Hunger Child Development Social Isolation Behavioral: Self Empowerment Groups Behavioral: Financial Empowerment Behavioral: Matched Savings Not Applicable

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 145 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Single (Participant)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Building Wealth and Health Network: A Microfinance/TANF Demonstration Project
Actual Study Start Date : June 16, 2014
Actual Primary Completion Date : December 31, 2015
Actual Study Completion Date : December 31, 2015

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Self Empowerment Groups
Intervention activities included helping participants to open savings accounts at a local federal credit union with 1:1 matches of up to twenty dollars per month for 12 months. Participants also received financial empowerment and Peer Support curriculum, weekly for about 3 hours per week for 28 weeks.
Behavioral: Self Empowerment Groups
The Self Empowerment Groups (SEG) curriculum draws key components from the S.E.L.F. tool within Sanctuary, focusing the four domains: creating personal, emotional, moral and physical safety (S), processing and managing emotions (E), recognizing loss and letting go (L), and developing goals for a sense of future (F). S.E.L.F. establishes a common language that all people who have experienced adversity can use to organize their lives and work towards building stable foundations to support their goals and invest in their potential.

Behavioral: Financial Empowerment
The Financial Empowerment curriculum developed for this study consisted of interactive exercises, worksheets, and journal assignments that fostered understanding and practice of banking, building credit and debt management, making the most of one's money, and setting financial goals for oneself and one's family. Content focused on identifying and harnessing the internal and external resources that participants can leverage to begin taking steps towards financial self-sufficiency.

Behavioral: Matched Savings
Participants were assisted with opening a savings accounts at a local non-profit federal credit union (with 1:1 matches of up to twenty dollars per month) over the course of 12 months.

Experimental: Financial Empowerment
Intervention activities included helping participants to open savings accounts at a local federal credit union with 1:1 matches of up to twenty dollars per month for 12 months. Participants also received financial empowerment weekly for about 3 hours per week for 28 weeks.
Behavioral: Financial Empowerment
The Financial Empowerment curriculum developed for this study consisted of interactive exercises, worksheets, and journal assignments that fostered understanding and practice of banking, building credit and debt management, making the most of one's money, and setting financial goals for oneself and one's family. Content focused on identifying and harnessing the internal and external resources that participants can leverage to begin taking steps towards financial self-sufficiency.

Behavioral: Matched Savings
Participants were assisted with opening a savings accounts at a local non-profit federal credit union (with 1:1 matches of up to twenty dollars per month) over the course of 12 months.

No Intervention: Control Group
The Control group did not receive assistance in opening a matched savings account, and were required by the County Assistance Office to participate in other Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) mandated work participation activities according to standard procedure.



Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Change in family economic hardship [ Time Frame: Quarterly change for up to 15 months ]

    Family economic hardship is a singular outcome captured in three measures of hardship:

    1) The U.S Household Food Security Survey Module (HFSSM) which measures food insecurity, 2) an energy security survey, which measures "energy insecurity," and 3) a housing security survey, which measures "housing instability." These three measures combine into a singular measure of hardship that consists of

    "No hardship" [no positive response to three hardships above] "Moderate hardship" [at least one of the three hardships] and "Severe hardship" [consisting of 2 or 3 hardships]



Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Change in Career readiness [ Time Frame: Quarterly change for up to 15 months ]
    Career readiness is measured using the employment hope scale.

  2. Change in Mental Health [ Time Frame: Quarterly change for up to 15 months ]
    To assess depressive symptoms among adult participants, we used the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D).

  3. Change in Child development [ Time Frame: Quarterly change for up to 15 months ]
    Children's developmental status was measured by the Parents' Evaluations of Developmental Status Survey. Participants were asked ten questions about their child's developmental issues: global/cognitive, expressive language and articulation, fine-motor, gross motor, behavior, social-emotional, self-help, school, and any other concerns.



Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Recipients of TANF cash benefits for four years or less, and
  • Subject to mandatory TANF 20-hour work requirement, and
  • Parents of at least one child below the age of six

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Adults who are unable to provide consent

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT02577705


Locations
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United States, Pennsylvania
Drexel University School of Public Health
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, 19104
Sponsors and Collaborators
Center for Hunger-Free Communities
Investigators
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Principal Investigator: Mariana Chilton, PhD, MPH Drexel University
Publications:
Dworsky, A. and M.E. Courtney, Barriers to employment among TANF applicants and their consequences for self-sufficiency. Families in Society-the Journal of Contemporary Social Services, 2007. 88(3): p. 379-389.
Trisi, D. and L. Pavetti, TANF Weakening as a Safety Net for Poor Families, in Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, http://www.cbpp.org/cms/index.cfm?fa=view&id=3700, Editor. 2012, Center on Budget and Policy Priorities: Washington, D.C
Bloom, D., P.J. Loprest, and S.R. Zedlewski, TANf recipients with barriers to employment. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute. Temporary Assistance for Needy Families Program—Research Synthesis Brief, 2011. 1
Loprest, P. and E. Maag, Disabilities among TANF recipients: Evidence from NHIS. 2009, The Urban Institute: Washington, D.C.
Bowie, S.L. and D.M. Dopwell, Metastressors as barriers to self-sufficiency among TANF-reliant African American and Latina women. Affilia, 2013
Frogner, B., R. Moffit, and D. Ribar, Leaving Welfare: Long-Term Evidence from Three Cities. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University. https://orchid. hosts. jhmi. edu/wfp/files/WP10-01_Leaving% 20Welfare. pdf, 2010.
Phillips, S.D. and A.J. Dettlaff, More than parents in prison: The broader overlap between the criminal justice and child welfare systems. Journal of Public Child Welfare, 2009. 3(1): p. 3-22.
Travis, J., Families and Children of Offenders Who Return Home. Fed. Probation, 2005. 69: p. 31
Head, V.B., C.E., Ovwigho, P, Criminal History as an employment barrier for TANF recipients. 2009, University of Maryland Baltimore: Baltimore.
Evans, G.W., J. Brooks-Gunn, and P.K. Klebanov, Stressing out the poor: Chronic physiological stress and the income-achievement gap. Community Investments, 2011(Fall): p. 22-27.
Randles, J.M., Partnering and Parenting in Poverty: A Qualitative Analysis of a Relationship Skills Program for Low‐Income, Unmarried Families. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 2014. 33(2): p. 385-412.
Pavetti, L., M.K. Derr, and H. Hesketh, Review of sanction policies and research studies. report from Mathematica Policy Research, Inc., to the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, US Department of Health and Human Services (March 2003), 2003.
Lens, V., Work sanctions under welfare reform: Are they helping women achieve self-sufficiency. Duke J. Gender L. & Pol'y, 2006. 13: p. 255
Pavetti, L., et al., The use of TANF work-oriented sanctions in Illinois, New Jersey, and South Carolina. Washington, DC: Mathematica Policy Research, Inc, 2004
Kalil, A., K.S. Seefeldt, and H.c. Wang, Sanctions and material hardship under TANF. Social Service Review, 2002. 76(4): p. 642-662.
Oggins, J. and A. Fleming, Welfare reform sanctions and financial strain in a food-pantry sample. J. Soc. & Soc. Welfare, 2001. 28: p. 101
Reichman, N.E., J.O. Teitler, and M.A. Curtis, TANF Sanctioning and Hardship. The Social Service Review, 2005. 79(2): p. 215-236,403-404.
Larson, A.M., S. Singh, and C. Lewis, Sanctions and Education Outcomes for Children in TANF Families. Child & Youth Services, 2011. 32(3): p. 180-199.
Stegman, M.A. and R. Faris, Welfare, work and banking: The use of consumer credit by current and former TANF recipients in Charlotte, North Carolina. Journal of Urban Affairs, 2005. 27(4): p. 379-402.
Zhan, M., S.G. Anderson, and J. Scott, Financial management knowledge of the low-income population: Characteristics and needs. Journal of Social Service Research, 2006. 33(1): p. 93-106
Anderson, S., M. Zhan, and J. Scott, Improving the knowledge and attitudes of low-income families about banking and predatory financial practices. Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Social Services, 2007. 88(3): p. 443-452.
Sullivan, J.X., Welfare Reform, Saving, and Vehicle Ownership Do Asset Limits and Vehicle Exemptions Matter? Journal of human resources, 2006. 41(1): p. 72-105.
FDIC Unbanked/Underbanked Survey Study Group, 2011 FDIC National Survey of Unbanked and Underbanked Households, F.D.E. Corportaion, Editor. 2012, Federal Deposit Ensurance Corportaion: Washington, D.C.
Sherraden, M.W., Assets and the poor: a new American welfare policy. 1991, Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe. xviii, 324 p.
Shapiro, T.M. and E.N. Wolff, Assets for the poor: the benefits of spreading asset ownership. The Ford Foundation series on asset building. 2001, New York: Russell Sage Foundation. xiv, 389 p.
Sherraden, M.W., Inclusion in the American dream: assets, poverty, and public policy. 2005, New York: Oxford University Press. xxii, 409 p.
Shanks, T.R. and C. Robinson, Over-stressed kids: Examining the impact of economic security on children and families, A.E. Casey, Editor. 2011: Baltimore, MD.
Brooks, J. and K. Wiedrich, Assets & Opportunity Scorecard: A Portrait of financial insecurity and Policies to Rebuild Prosperity in America, in CFED, http://scorecard.cfed.org, Editor. 2012: Washington, D.C.
Hendey, L., S.-M. McKernan, and B. Woo, Weathering the Recession: The Financial Crisis and Family Wealth Changes in Low-Income Neighborhoods, T.A.E.C.F.a.t.U. Institute, Editor. 2012: Baltimore, MD, and Washington, DC.
Hong, P., J. Polanin, and T. Pigott, Validation of the Employment Hope Scale: measuring psychological self-sufficiency among low-income jobseekers. Research on Social Work Practice, 2012. 22(3): p. 323-332.
Hong, P.Y.P., The employment hope scale: Measuring an empowerment pathway to employment success. 2013, Loyola University Chicago
Schwarzer, R., Jerusalem, M., Generalized Self-Efficacy scale, in Measures in health psychology: A user's portfolio. Causal and control beliefs, J. Weinman, Wright, S., Johnston, M., Editor. 1995, NFER-NELSON: Windsor, England. p. 35-37.
Bickel, G., et al., Guide to measuring household food security. US Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service, Office of Analysis, Nutrition, and Evaluation. http://www. fns. usda. gov/fsec/FILES/Guide% 20to% 20Measuring% 20Household% 20Food% 20Security (3-23-00). pdf, 2000.
Bickel, G., et al., Measuring Food Security in the United States: Guide to Measuring Household Food Security. 2000, US Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service, Office of Analysis and Evaluation: Alexandria, VA.
Blake, K.S., R.L. Kellerson, and A. Simic, Measuring overcrowding in housing. Washington, DC: Department of Housing and Urban Development, Office of Policy Development and Research, 2007.
Radloff, L.S., The CES-D scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1977. 1: p. 385-401
Glascoe, F.P., Scoring, Administration and Interpretation Guidelines, in Collaborating with parents: Using Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status to detect and address developmental and behavioral problems. 1998, Ellsworth & Vandermeer Press: Nashville, TN, US. p. 9-30.
Richters, J.E. and W. Saltzman, Survey of Exposure to Community Violence: Parent report version. 1990: J.E. Richters.
Scarpa, A., et al., Community Violence Exposure in University Students A Replication and Extension. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 2002. 17(3): p. 253-272.
Osborne, C. and J. Knab, Work, welfare, and young children's health and behavior in the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study. Children and Youth Services Review, 2007. 29(6): p. 762-781.
Wildeman, C., Paternal Incarceration and Children's Physically Aggressive Behaviors Evidence from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study. Social Forces, 2010. 89(1): p. 285-309.
Schwarzer, R., Everything you wanted to know about the General Self-Efficacy Scale but were afraid to ask: documentation of the General Self-Efficacy Scale. 2014.

Publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):
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Responsible Party: Mariana Chilton, PhD, MPH, Principal Investigator, Drexel University
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02577705    
Other Study ID Numbers: 1041002551
First Posted: October 16, 2015    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: February 1, 2017
Last Verified: October 2015
Keywords provided by Mariana Chilton, PhD, MPH, Drexel University:
food insecurity
adverse childhood experiences
violence exposure
trauma
poverty
TANF
assets
depression
randomized control trial