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Cost-efficacy Between ART and Composite Resin Restorations in Primary Molars

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT02562456
Recruitment Status : Active, not recruiting
First Posted : September 29, 2015
Last Update Posted : December 11, 2018
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Daniela Prócida Raggio, University of Sao Paulo

Brief Summary:
The aim of this randomized clinical trial study is to compare the longevity of Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) using high viscosity GIC and Conventional Treatment using composite resin under rubber dam isolation and local anesthesia (CT) in primary molars. As secondary outcomes, cost-efficacy, self-reported discomfort and cooperation will also be tested. Children aging between 3 to 6 years old presenting at least one occlusal and/or occlusoproximal cavity will be randomly assigned to one of two groups according to the dental treatment: ART (experimental group) or CT (control group). The dental treatment will be performed at a dental care trailer located in a Public School in Barueri (São Paulo, Brazil). The unit of analysis for randomization will be the child. A number of 204 teeth presenting occlusal cavities and 240 teeth presenting occlusoproximal cavities were set after sample size calculation. The primary outcome will be the restorations' longevity, which will be assessed after 6, 12, 18 and 24 months by two evaluators through clinical examination according to Frencken et al. (1998) criteria for occlusal restorations and Roeleveld et al. (2006) criteria for occlusoproximal restorations. The time spent during the dental treatment and all materials used will be considered for estimating the cost-efficacy of each treatment. The individual's discomfort will be also measured after each dental procedure using the Facial Scale of Wong-Baker. Cooperation will be assessed by the operator using a 5-point scale.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Dental Caries Procedure: ART using Fuji IX Procedure: Conventional Treatment Not Applicable

Detailed Description:

Research setting

The study will be performed in a dental care trailer which simulated a regular dental office and it is located inside a public school of the city Barueri (São Paulo, Brazil).

Sample size calculation

For sample size calculation, data regarding longevity of CT in occlusal and occlusoproximal restorations after 2 years were extracted from the literature as 86% for occlusal and 60% for occlusoproximal restorations. A difference of 15% and 20% between the longevity of CT and ART was set as non-inferiority limit. Considering the level of significance as 5%, power as 80% and adding 40% due to the study design (cluster per child), a number of 204 occlusal restorations and 240 occlusoproximal restorations will be needed.


The child will be the unit of randomization which means that all eligible teeth of a participant will be treated according the same restorative approach. Randomization list will be obtained using blocks of 4, 6 and 8 generated by software Sealed Envelope Ltd. Opaque, sealed and sequentially numbered envelopes will be used for randomizing all participants immediately before restorative treatments' beginning.

Allocation concealment

To assure allocation concealment, the participant will be randomized immediately before the treatment. When two or more cavities is available, preventing the finalization of the treatment in only one session, breach of allocation concealment will be signalized in the participants' record.


Due to differences between the techniques, it will be not possible to blind operators, participants and evaluators.


All operators will be masters or PhD students from the Pediatric Dentistry Department, Faculty of Dentistry, University of São Paulo, previously trained. All procedures will be performed with the assistance of a dental student previously trained to manipulate all restorative materials.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Estimated Enrollment : 428 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Single (Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Difference of Cost-efficacy Between Atraumatic Restoration Treatment (ART) and Composite Resin Restorations in Primary Molars: A Randomized Clinical Trial
Actual Study Start Date : November 1, 2015
Actual Primary Completion Date : June 10, 2018
Estimated Study Completion Date : December 10, 2019

Arm Intervention/treatment
Active Comparator: Conventional Treatment
Occlusal and occlusoproximal composite resin restorations in primary molars (rubber dam isolation + Adhesive system + composite resin Filtek z350)
Procedure: Conventional Treatment
Occlusal and occlusoproximal composite resin restorations in primary molars using the Scotchbond Multi-purpose adhesive system and the Filtek Z-350 composite resin wil be performed. Local anesthesia will be used. Absolute isolation will be performed using rubber dam and clamp. Removal of unsupported enamel will be performed using a round bur. Infected carious tissue will be removed with hand instruments. The cavity will be etched using 37% phosphoric acid for 15 seconds followed by rising and drying for the same amount of time. The cavity will be restored with composite resin. Occlusion will be checked. an adapted matrix strip with a wooden wedge will be used to assure appropriate contour.

Experimental: ART using Fuji IX
Occlusal and occlusoproximal ART restorations in primary molars with GIC Fuji IX
Procedure: ART using Fuji IX
Occlusal and occlusoproximal ART restorations in primary molars using the high viscosity GIC Fuji IX will be performed under relative isolation. No local anesthesia will be used. Infected carious tissue will be removed with hand instruments, and the cavities restored with GIC. After the press-finger technique, the excess of material will be removed and occlusion will be checked. For occlusoproximal restoration, an adapted matrix strip with a wooden wedge will be used to assure appropriate contour.

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. The restoration survival [ Time Frame: Every 6 months up to 24 months. ]
    The treatments will be classified as successful when they present a clinical satisfactory aspect. Otherwise, "minor failures" will be analyzed. "Minor failures" are those in which there is a defect in the restoration/crown, but it does not interfere with the tooth health.

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Cost-efficacy assessment [ Time Frame: Through study completion, an average of 24 months ]

    Treatment costs = professional costs + procedure costs.

    • Professional cost: the time spent in each session will be converted in hours and multiplied not only by the medium income of the dentist per hour added 40% of dangerousness but also by the medium income of a dental assistant added 20% of insalubrity
    • Procedure cost: variable cost (equipment & instruments depreciation and electricity) and and materials cost. To calculate the equipments' and instruments' depreciation, we will consider their price, the lifespan of 5 and 3 years respectively and a monthly use of 160 hours. To calculate materials' costs, all materials used in each procedure will have their specifications and quantity registered. Prices will be inferences from the market value converted in US Dollars obtained by the medium of the values from different places that commercialized the referred products.

    If the restorative treatment requires repairs, the additional cost of it will also be considered.

  2. Child self-reported discomfort [ Time Frame: Immediately after treatment ]
    The acceptability of each type of treatment will be evaluated using the Facial scale of Wong-Baker (Wong; Baker, 1998). This scale indicates the discomfort of an individual who has to choose among six faces, each one expressing different facial countenance. The first image is a smiling happy face, indicating no discomfort, followed by gradually less cheerful expressions, up to the last one which is a very sad face covered by tears, indicating great discomfort. The participant will be asked to choose the face that is more similar to how he or she felt during the treatment. This answer should be given solely by the child, which means, no parental or professional interferences. The facial scale of Wong-Baker will be applied right after the end of each restorative treatment session.

  3. Cooperation [ Time Frame: Immediately after treatment ]
    Cooperation will be evaluated by the operator immediately after the end of the treatment using a 5-point scale: 1- Good behaviour, 2- Reasonable behaviour, 3- Indiferent, 4- Bad behaviour, 5- Really bad behaviour.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.

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Ages Eligible for Study:   3 Years to 6 Years   (Child)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Children aging between 3 and 6 years
  • presenting good health conditions
  • whose parents or legal guardians accept and sign the consent form
  • with at least one occlusal or occlusal proximal caries lesion in primary molars
  • only occlusal and/or occlusal-proximal surfaces with caries lesions with dentin involvement

Exclusion Criteria:

  • severe behavioral issues
  • presence of fistula or abscess near the selected tooth
  • presence of pulp exposure in the selected tooth
  • presence of mobility in the selected tooth

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT02562456

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Complexo Educacional Carlos Osmarinho de Lima - Trailer USP
Barueri, São Paulo, Brazil
Sponsors and Collaborators
University of Sao Paulo
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Study Chair: Daniela P Raggio, PhD University of Sao Paulo
Publications automatically indexed to this study by Identifier (NCT Number):
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Responsible Party: Daniela Prócida Raggio, Associate Professor of Pediatric Dentistry Department, University of Sao Paulo Identifier: NCT02562456    
Other Study ID Numbers: RECART
First Posted: September 29, 2015    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: December 11, 2018
Last Verified: December 2018

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Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: No
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No
Keywords provided by Daniela Prócida Raggio, University of Sao Paulo:
Dental Atraumatic Restorative Treatment
Composite Resins
Primary Teeth
Clinical Efficacy
Cost Analysis
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Dental Caries
Tooth Demineralization
Tooth Diseases
Stomatognathic Diseases