COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation.
Get the latest public health information from CDC:

Get the latest research information from NIH: Menu

Effectiveness of Second Generation Antipsychotics in First Episode Psychosis Patients: 1-year Follow-up (PAFIP3_1Y)

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT02532491
Recruitment Status : Enrolling by invitation
First Posted : August 25, 2015
Last Update Posted : February 12, 2020
Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental
Instituto de Investigación Marqués de Valdecilla
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Benedicto Crespo-Facorro, Fundación Marques de Valdecilla

Brief Summary:
This study compares the efficacy and effectiveness of two of the second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) most used in our society in the treatment of schizophrenia (Aripiprazole and Risperidone) and the investigators do within an assistance program of early-stage psychosis individuals of the Community of Cantabria, clinical reference for the treatment of this disease in the Spanish Autonomous Community. Patients are included in a prospective naturalistic study, open flexible-doses and randomized into one of two possible patterns of treatment that includes the protocol.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Schizophrenia Psychotic Disorders Drug: Aripiprazole Drug: Risperidone Phase 4

Detailed Description:

At present there is no evidence of which antipsychotic treatment would be the choice for treating the appearance of a non-affective psychotic disorder. There are a number of second-generation antipsychotic drugs that have proven effective in controlling positive symptoms of the disease but carry a number of variable side effects so there is no evidence on the treatment of choice in the market. Few studies try to assess the adhesion of a first episode of psychosis as prolonged treatment in time. Thus the development of experimental studies comparing the effectiveness of such treatments in clinical practice is of high interest for clinical psychiatrists.

Study setting and financial support: data for the present investigation are being obtained from an ongoing epidemiological and three-year longitudinal intervention program of first-episode psychosis (PAFIP) conducted at the outpatient clinic and the inpatient unit at the University Hospital Marqués de Valdecilla, Spain. Conforming to international standards for research ethics, this program was approved by the local institutional review board. Patients meeting inclusion criteria and their families provide written informed consent to be included in the PAFIP. The Mental Health Services of Cantabria provided funding for implementing the program. None pharmaceutical company supplied any financial support to it.

Study design: this is a flexible-dose study of two neuroleptics (Aripiprazole and Risperidone) assigned at aleatory ratio 1:1. Rapid titration schedule (5-day), until optimal dose is reached, is a rule used unless severe side effects occur. At the treating physician's discretion, the dose and type of antipsychotic medication could be changed based on clinical efficacy and the profile of side effects during the follow-up period. Antimuscarinic medication, Lormetazepam and Clonazepam are allowed for clinical reasons. No antimuscarinic agents are administered prophylactically. Antidepressants (Sertraline) and mood stabilizers (lithium) are permitted if clinically needed.

Clinical assessment: the severity scale of the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) scale, the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), the Scale for the Assessment of Positive symptoms (SAPS) and the Scale for the Assessment of Negative symptoms (SANS) are used to evaluate symptomatology. To assess general adverse event experiences the Scale of the Udvalg for Kliniske Undersogelser (UKU), the Simpson-Angus Rating Scale (SARS) and the Barnes Akathisia Scale (BAS) are used. The same trained psychiatrist (BC-F) completed all clinical assessments.

Layout table for study information
Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Estimated Enrollment : 200 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Open Flexible-dose Randomized Study of the Effectiveness of Second Generation Antipsychotics in First Episode Psychosis Patients: A 1-year Follow-up
Actual Study Start Date : May 2014
Actual Primary Completion Date : May 2018
Estimated Study Completion Date : December 2020

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

Arm Intervention/treatment
Active Comparator: Aripiprazole
Oral, dose range 10-30 mg/day, once or twice a day during study duration.
Drug: Aripiprazole
Initial dose: 10 mg.
Other Name: Abilify

Active Comparator: Risperidone
Oral, dose range 1-6 mg/day, once or twice a day during study duration.
Drug: Risperidone
Initial dose: 2 mg.
Other Name: Risperdal

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Effectiveness of Aripiprazole and Risperidone at long term as measured by Percentage of discontinuation [ Time Frame: 1 year ]
    Percentage of discontinuation of the initially assigned treatment: patients who completed the 1 year follow-up assessment and changed initial antipsychotic. Four reasons for the discontinuation were recorded: 1.- insufficient efficacy; 2.- marked side-effects; 3.- patient reported non-adherence and 4.- other causes. If more than one reason for discontinuation was present, the most important reason according to the above ranking was selected. Antipsychotic treatment data (doses, discontinuation and concomitant medications) were registered every 3 months. Insufficient efficacy was established at the treating physician's judgment only after at least three weeks of treatment.

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Change in general psychopathology measured by BPRS at medium and long term [ Time Frame: 3 months and 1 year ]
    Measured by BPRS. The patients were defined as responders to the optimum dose of antipsychotic at 6 weeks if a >40% reduction of the BPRS scores at intake and had a CGI severity score of ≤ 4. In addition, investigators also explored to rate of responders if a cutoff of ≥ 50% reduction of the BPRS total scores at intake was used.

  2. Change in negative symptoms measured by SANS at medium and long term [ Time Frame: 3 months and 1 year ]
    Measured by changes in total score of the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS).

  3. Change in positive symptoms measured by SAPS at medium and long term [ Time Frame: 3 months and 1 year ]
    Measured by changes in total score of the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS).

  4. Emergence of adverse events by using the Scale of the Udvalg for Kliniske Undersogelser (UKU) [ Time Frame: 3 months and 1 year ]
    Measured by UKU. Those treatment-emergent adverse events that occurred at a rate of at least 10% in either treatment group are considered.

  5. Emergence of akathisia by using the Barnes Akathisia Scale (BAS) [ Time Frame: 3 months and 1 year ]
    Measured by BAS. Treatment-emergent akathisia is assessed by both baseline-to-end changes and newly emergent categorical changes.

  6. Emergence of extrapyramidal symptoms by using the Simpson-Angus Rating Scale (SARS) [ Time Frame: 3 months and 1 year ]
    Measured by SARS. Extrapyramidal symptoms is assessed by both baseline-to-end changes and newly emergent categorical changes.

  7. Remission rate at long term [ Time Frame: 1 year ]
    Remission was defined according to Andreasen et al. (2005) criteria covering BPRS and SANS scores: 1.- a score of mild or less (≤3) on six predefined BPRS symptom items: grandiosity, suspiciousness, unusual thought content, hallucinations, conceptual disorganization and mannerisms; and 2.- SANS items scores of ≤2 simultaneously in all items. These criteria are required to be maintained for at least 6 months.

  8. Relapse rate at long term [ Time Frame: 1 year ]
    Among patients who achieved clinical improvement and stability (CGI rating ≤ 4 and a decrease of at least 30% on BPRS total score and all BPRS key symptom items, by being rated ≤ 3 for more than 4 consecutive weeks at some point during the first 6 months following program entry), relapse was defined as any of the following criteria that occurred during follow-up: 1 - a rating of either 5 or above on any key BPRS symptom items, 2 - CGI rating of ≥ 6 and a change score of CGI of "much worse" or "very much worse", 3 - hospitalization for psychotic psychopathology, or 4 - completed suicide. The key BPRS symptoms were unusual thought content, hallucinations, suspiciousness, conceptual disorganization and bizarre behaviour. Exacerbation was defined as any 2-point increase of any of the key BPRS symptoms, excluding changes in which the rating remained at the non-psychotic level (i.e., <3).

Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.

Layout table for eligibility information
Ages Eligible for Study:   15 Years to 60 Years   (Child, Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Experiencing their first episode of psychosis (First Episode of Psychosis is defined as that psychopathological state in which for the first time and regardless of its duration, the patient has enough severe psychotic symptoms to allow a diagnosis of psychosis, having received no specific psychiatric treatment for him).
  • Living in the catchment area (Cantabria).
  • No prior treatment with antipsychotic medication or, if previously treated, a total life time of adequate antipsychotic treatment of less than 6 weeks.
  • Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria for brief psychotic disorder, schizophreniform disorder, schizophrenia, or schizoaffective disorder.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Meeting DSM-IV criteria for drug dependence.
  • Meeting DSM-IV criteria for mental retardation.
  • Having a history of neurological disease or head injury with loss of consciousness.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT02532491

Layout table for location information
University Hospital Marques de Valdecilla
Santander, Cantabria, Spain, 39008
Sponsors and Collaborators
Fundación Marques de Valdecilla
Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental
Instituto de Investigación Marqués de Valdecilla
Layout table for investigator information
Principal Investigator: Benedicto Crespo-Facorro, Professor University Hospital Marqués de Valdecilla, IDIVAL, Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of Cantabria, CIBERSAM Centro Investigación Biomédica en Red Salud Mental, Santander, Spain.
Layout table for additonal information
Responsible Party: Benedicto Crespo-Facorro, Associate Professor of Psychiatry, Fundación Marques de Valdecilla Identifier: NCT02532491    
Other Study ID Numbers: ROAC2014_1Y
2013-005399-16 ( EudraCT Number )
14-0312 ( Other Identifier: AEMPS )
First Posted: August 25, 2015    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: February 12, 2020
Last Verified: June 2019
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: No

Layout table for additional information
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: No
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No
Keywords provided by Benedicto Crespo-Facorro, Fundación Marques de Valdecilla:
Antipsychotic Agents
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Layout table for MeSH terms
Psychotic Disorders
Mental Disorders
Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychotic Disorders
Serotonin Antagonists
Serotonin Agents
Neurotransmitter Agents
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Antipsychotic Agents
Tranquilizing Agents
Central Nervous System Depressants
Psychotropic Drugs
Dopamine Antagonists
Dopamine Agents
Antidepressive Agents
Dopamine Agonists
Serotonin 5-HT1 Receptor Agonists
Serotonin Receptor Agonists
Serotonin 5-HT2 Receptor Antagonists
Dopamine D2 Receptor Antagonists