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Health Literacy Interventions to Overcome Disparities in CRC Screening

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02360605
Recruitment Status : Active, not recruiting
First Posted : February 10, 2015
Last Update Posted : March 6, 2018
Sponsor:
Collaborators:
Northwestern University
Loyola University
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center Shreveport

Brief Summary:
In the proposed project the investigators will evaluate two different follow-up approaches to improve low income patients' completion of initial and annual colorectal cancer (CRC) screening using the Fecal Immunochemical Test (FIT), the most sensitive FOBT. The purpose of this study is to compare the effectiveness of two distinct follow-up strategies to promote CRC screening: a prevention coordinator (PC) approach vs. an automated telephone reminder (ATR) system. The investigators will adapt a successful intervention tested in the Health Literacy and Cancer Screening Project by adding a follow-up strategy to the health literacy intervention. Specific Aims: The investigators Primary Aims are to: 1. Compare the effectiveness of the PC and ATR strategies to improve initial and repeat CRC screening. 2. Compare the cost effectiveness of the PC and ATR strategies for initial and repeat CRC screening. The investigators Secondary Aims are to: 3. Conduct a process evaluation of both follow-up strategies to investigate implementation and barriers 4. Determine if the effects of either strategy vary by patients' literacy skills. 5. Explore patient characteristics associated with CRC screening knowledge, beliefs, self-efficacy, and compliance over time between study arms.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Colorectal Cancer Behavioral: automated telephone reminder Behavioral: prevention coordinator Behavioral: Health literacy appropriate education and demonstration Not Applicable

Detailed Description:

The investigators objective is to compare the effectiveness of two distinct follow-up strategies to promote colorectal cancer screening: a prevention coordinator (PC) approach vs. an automated telephone reminder (ATR) system. The investigators will adapt a successful intervention tested in the Health Literacy and Cancer Screening Project [R01CA115869] by adding a follow-up strategy to the health literacy intervention. In the proposed project the investigators will evaluate two different follow-up approaches to improve low income patients' completion of initial and annual CRC screening using Fecal Immunochemical Test (FIT).

Substantial evidence shows that routine screening can prevent colorectal cancer (CRC) or detect it at an early stage, reducing related mortality. While overall CRC screening rates in the US are increasing, rates remain persistently low among uninsured and low-income individuals, those with fewer years of education, and racial/ethnic minorities. Low health literacy has been linked to cancer screening noncompliance, higher rates of advanced stage of presentation of disease and health disparities. In response, the Department of Health and Human Services has called for health information and services that are accurate, accessible, and actionable as well as culturally appropriate.

This study will implement a two-arm, randomized controlled trial with low income, underinsured patients in federally qualified health centers (FQHCs) to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of PC and ATR follow-up strategies to increase CRC screening. All patients recruited to the study will receive evidence-based, literacy appropriate screening materials developed using health literacy 'best practices' and a simplified FIT kit. Use of these materials has been shown to significantly increase CRC screening rates in the investigators ongoing study. Patients will be randomized to receive either: 1) the PC follow-up strategy, in which a PC personally reminds patients to complete and mail FIT kits, and perceived barriers to screening are discussed and addressed; or 2) the ATR follow-up strategy, in which an automated system electronically encourages patients to complete and mail FIT kits using plain language messages. The effectiveness of these two approaches will be compared at 12 and 24 months.


Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 620 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Prevention
Official Title: Health Literacy Interventions to Overcome Disparities in CRC Screening
Study Start Date : February 2015
Estimated Primary Completion Date : December 2018
Estimated Study Completion Date : December 2018

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

MedlinePlus related topics: Health Literacy

Arm Intervention/treatment
Active Comparator: automated telephone reminder arm
Patients will receive Health literacy appropriate education and demonstration of FIT kits with simplified instructions. Patients will receive reminders to complete their FIT screening kits by an automated call.
Behavioral: automated telephone reminder
The patients will be contacted at 4 weeks and again at 8 weeks if they have not returned the FIT. ATR will remind the patient of the importance of completing and returning the FIT results and encourage screening completion. There will also be an option where the patient can request another FIT kit be mailed to them, one to hear information on common problems with FIT completion or how to call the clinic if they have questions. Years 2 and 3: 12 months after patients returned their initial FIT (or if they did not return the FIT, 12 months after enrollment) they will be mailed a friendly letter to remind them that it is time for their annual CRC screening and that a FIT kit will be mailed the following week. During the following week the patients will be mailed the FIT kit with addressed stamped envelope and the educational pamphlet they received at enrollment. For follow-up ATR calls, we will use the same protocol as described for the initial screening. Same procedure for year 3.

Behavioral: Health literacy appropriate education and demonstration
The Research Assistant (RA) will employ health literacy communication principles in providing a CRC recommendation and brief screening information using the CRC pamphlet and a FIT kit with simplified instructions and accompanying self-addressed, stamped envelope. A scripted message and illustrations will model what the patient needs to do to complete the FIT. The RA will appropriately demonstrate, using the kit, and will suggest patients show the pamphlet and FIT kit to their provider that day and talk to them about screening. Annual screening will be further emphasized at enrollment by giving patients an empowering message about the benefits of completing a FIT annually and telling them they will be mailed a reminder letter and FIT kit and receive outreach phone calls in 12 and 24 months for the next two years as well as a post survey and satisfaction interview over the phone at 6 months.

Active Comparator: prevention coordinator arm
Patients will receive Health literacy appropriate education and demonstration of FIT kits with simplified instructions.Patients will receive reminders to complete their FIT screening kits by a prevention coordinator.
Behavioral: prevention coordinator
The patients will be contacted at 4 weeks and again at 8 weeks if they have not returned the FIT by a prevention coordinator (PC). PC will call to encourage completion and ascertain any barriers to completion. The PCs will use Health Literacy and motivational interviewing techniques described in the training section to enhance understanding and confidence and reduce ambivalence to completing and returning the FIT. Years 2 and 3: 12 months after patients returned their initial FIT (or if they did not return the FIT, 12 months after enrollment) they will be mailed a friendly letter to remind them that it is time for their annual CRC screening and that a FIT kit will be mailed the following week. During the following week the patients will be mailed the FIT kit with addressed stamped envelope and the educational pamphlet they received at enrollment. For follow-up PC calls, we will use the same protocol as described for the initial screening. Same procedure for year 3.

Behavioral: Health literacy appropriate education and demonstration
The Research Assistant (RA) will employ health literacy communication principles in providing a CRC recommendation and brief screening information using the CRC pamphlet and a FIT kit with simplified instructions and accompanying self-addressed, stamped envelope. A scripted message and illustrations will model what the patient needs to do to complete the FIT. The RA will appropriately demonstrate, using the kit, and will suggest patients show the pamphlet and FIT kit to their provider that day and talk to them about screening. Annual screening will be further emphasized at enrollment by giving patients an empowering message about the benefits of completing a FIT annually and telling them they will be mailed a reminder letter and FIT kit and receive outreach phone calls in 12 and 24 months for the next two years as well as a post survey and satisfaction interview over the phone at 6 months.




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. initial CRC screening [ Time Frame: 6 months after receipt of FIT kit ]
    A patient will be considered screened initially for CRC if he/she completes a FIT within 6 months of study entry.

  2. repeat CRC screening [ Time Frame: between 12 and 18 months of previous screen ]
    Patients in our study will be considered to have completed repeat annual CRC screening if they complete a FIT between 12 and 18 months of previous screen (or baseline interview, if initial FIT was not returned).


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. patients' understanding, beliefs and self-efficacy toward CRC screening over time. [ Time Frame: 24 months after enrollment ]
    Explore patients' understanding, beliefs and self-efficacy toward CRC screening over time by analyzing pre and post-questionnaire responses on understanding, beliefs and self-efficacy.

  2. effects of either strategy vary by patients' literacy [ Time Frame: 6 months after receipt of FIT kit ]
    a term for literacy level (at or below 9th grade versus above 9th grade reading level) and a term for literacy by arm interaction will be added to the linear model to determine if either intervention varied by patient literacy



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Ages Eligible for Study:   50 Years to 75 Years   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  1. a patient of the identified clinics,
  2. age 50 to 75 (based on American Cancer Society (ACS) guidelines), and
  3. can speak and understand English

Exclusion Criteria:

  1. previous history of cancer other than non-melanoma skin cancer,
  2. up-to-date with CRC screening according to ACS guidelines (FOBT every year, sigmoidoscopy every 5 years, or colonoscopy every 10 years),
  3. a first relative family history that requires a more complete history and possible colonoscopy because of their risk factor (these patients will be referred to their provider for follow-up),
  4. an uncorrectable hearing or visual impairment, or
  5. too ill to participate.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT02360605


Locations
United States, Louisiana
LSU Health Sciences Center
Shreveport, Louisiana, United States, 71130
Sponsors and Collaborators
Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center Shreveport
Northwestern University
Loyola University

Publications:

Responsible Party: Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center Shreveport
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02360605     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: RSG-13-021-01 - CPPB
RSG-13-021-01 - CPPB ( Other Grant/Funding Number: American Cancer Society )
First Posted: February 10, 2015    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: March 6, 2018
Last Verified: March 2018
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: No

Keywords provided by Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center Shreveport:
colorectal cancer screening
low literacy
community clinics
Fecal Immunochemical Test

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Colorectal Neoplasms
Intestinal Neoplasms
Gastrointestinal Neoplasms
Digestive System Neoplasms
Neoplasms by Site
Neoplasms
Digestive System Diseases
Gastrointestinal Diseases
Colonic Diseases
Intestinal Diseases
Rectal Diseases