Working…
COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation.
Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov.

Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus.
ClinicalTrials.gov
ClinicalTrials.gov Menu

Comparison of Single and Combination Diuretics in Low-Renin Hypertension (PATHWAY3)

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
 
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02351973
Recruitment Status : Unknown
Verified July 2015 by Morris Brown, University of Cambridge.
Recruitment status was:  Active, not recruiting
First Posted : January 30, 2015
Last Update Posted : July 3, 2015
Sponsor:
Collaborators:
University of Leicester
University of Dundee
University of Glasgow
University of Edinburgh
Imperial College London
Barts & The London NHS Trust
King's College London
University of Birmingham
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Morris Brown, University of Cambridge

Brief Summary:
The purpose of this study is to determine whether the routine combination of optimal thiazide and K+-sparing diuretic will both increase efficacy of BP reduction and reduce risk of glucose intolerance; and whether K+-sparing diuretics alone may have a neutral or even beneficial effect upon glucose tolerance.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Hypertension Drug: Hydrochlorthiazide Drug: Amiloride Drug: Hydrochlorthiazide and Amiloride Phase 4

Detailed Description:

A major attraction of K+-sparing diuretics may be the absence of risk of new-onset diabetes (DM). Since they have not been compared in hypertension outcome trials, and DM has not been an endpoint in heart failure studies of spironolactone or eplerenone, we do not know for certain whether they are clean in this respect. Short-term studies suggest they are.49 Interestingly in INSIGHT there was no excess of DM in patients receiving HCTZ 25mg, which was combined with amiloride 2.5mg, but increased by 30% in patients on HCTZ/amiloride 50/5mg.44 In the proposed study we shall use the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) to provide an endpoint for each subject. This strategy has recently been employed to demonstrate a difference after just 12 weeks of dosing with a thiazide diuretic50. Hyperkalaemia has been the traditional concern about K+-sparing diuretics. We expect to demonstrate that in patients with eGFR ≥45, the risk of hyperkalaemia is nullified by combination with a thiazide. Instead then of amiloride being used mainly in trace doses to balance the hypokalaemia of thiazides, practice might reverse to thinking of thaizides as the "partner" used to negate risk of hyperkalaemia.

The challenge to designing this study is to compare several options among the diuretics while achieving clear cut answers to:

  1. the comparison of combination with single diuretics and
  2. the comparison of K+-sparing diuretics with thiazide.

A study of sufficient duration to establish efficacy and tolerability (especially upon glucose tolerance) cannot be crossover in design and therefore requires a large number of subjects to compare the options. In order to maximize recruitment whilst also maximizing sensitivity to detect changes in OGTT, we will open the trial to most of those patients with hypertension in whom diuretic is a reasonable next option, providing they have one feature of the metabolic syndrome - additional to hypertension.

Layout table for study information
Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 423 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Double (Participant, Investigator)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Comparison of Single and Combination Diuretics in Low-Renin Hypertension
Study Start Date : November 2009
Estimated Primary Completion Date : July 2015
Estimated Study Completion Date : August 2015

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine


Arm Intervention/treatment
Active Comparator: Hydrochlorthiazide
Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) ATC class: C03AA03 Form: Tablet Dose range: Phase 1: 25mg (2 x 12.5mg tablet) Phase 2: 50mg (4 x 12.5mg tablet) Maximum allowed dose: 50mg Administration: oral
Drug: Hydrochlorthiazide

HCTZ 25mg to 50mg All drugs will be provided in an acceptable container where the active agent is not identified on the drug label.

In Phase 1 (weeks 0-12) patients will have 1 tablet from each of 2 bottles. These will contain either a) HCTZ 12.5mg in both bottles; b) amiloride 5mg in both bottles; OR c) one bottle of each.

In Phase 2 (weeks13-24) patients will take 2 tablets from each of 2 bottles. These bottles will have the same contents as in Phase 1, except that the number of tablets will be twice as many.


Active Comparator: Amiloride
Amiloride ATC class: C03DB01 Form: Tablet Dose range: Phase 1: 10mg (2 x 5mg tablet) Phase 2: 20mg (4 x 5mg tablet) Maximum allowed dose: 20mg Administration: oral
Drug: Amiloride

Amiloride 10mg to 20mg All drugs will be provided in an acceptable container where the active agent is not identified on the drug label.

In Phase 1 (weeks 0-12) patients will have 1 tablet from each of 2 bottles. These will contain either a) HCTZ 12.5mg in both bottles; b) amiloride 5mg in both bottles; OR c) one bottle of each.

In Phase 2 (weeks13-24) patients will take 2 tablets from each of 2 bottles. These bottles will have the same contents as in Phase 1, except that the number of tablets will be twice as many.


Active Comparator: Hydrochlorthiazide and Amiloride
Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) + Amiloride Form: Tablets (separate tablet of each drug) Dose range: Phase 1: HCTZ 12.5mg (1 tablet) + Amiloride 5mg (1 tablet) Phase 2: HCTZ 25mg (2 x 12.5mg tablet) + Amiloride 10mg (2 x 5mg tablet) Maximum allowed dose: HCTZ 25mg/ Amiloride 10mg Administration: oral
Drug: Hydrochlorthiazide and Amiloride

HCTZ 12.5 to 25mg & + Amiloride 5mg to 10mg All drugs will be provided in an acceptable container where the active agent is not identified on the drug label.

In Phase 1 (weeks 0-12) patients will have 1 tablet from each of 2 bottles. These will contain either a) HCTZ 12.5mg in both bottles; b) amiloride 5mg in both bottles; OR c) one bottle of each.

In Phase 2 (weeks13-24) patients will take 2 tablets from each of 2 bottles. These bottles will have the same contents as in Phase 1, except that the number of tablets will be twice as many.





Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Blood glucose measured two hours after oral ingestion of a 75 G glucose drink, following overnight fasting. [ Time Frame: 0, 12 and 24 ]

    There will be hierarchical co-primary endpoints. First, the primary outcome (2hr glucose) will be compared between the amiloride and HCTZ cohorts. If amiloride is superior, a second primary analysis will compare cohorts on combination therapy and HCTZ. The analyses will adjust for baseline covariates.

    The difference in blood glucose, over the 6 months between baseline and the end of the study period, measured two hours after oral ingestion of a 75 g glucose drink, will be analysed using a mixed model with patients as a random effect. The model will include terms for gender, age, height, weight and smoking history.



Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Home systolic BP. The secondary outcome is the difference from the end of placebo run-in to 24 weeks [ Time Frame: 0, 12 and 24 weeks ]
  2. Plasma insulin during OGTT. The secondary outcome is the change from end of placebo to 24 weeks in the rise in insulin from 0 to 30 minutes during oral glucose tolerance test [ Time Frame: 0, 12 and 24 weeks ]
  3. HbA1C. The secondary outcome is the change in HbA1c between end of placebo and 24 weeks [ Time Frame: 0, 12, 24 weeks ]
  4. Clinic systolic BP. The secondary outcome is the change in clinic systolic BP from end of placebo run-in to 24 weeks. [ Time Frame: 0, 12, 24 weeks ]
  5. Area under the curve of the oGTT. The secondary outcome is the difference in area under the curve of blood glucose, from 0-120 minutes after glucose ingestion, between the final day of the placebo run-in, and 24 weeks. [ Time Frame: 0, 12, 24 weeks ]
  6. Fasting serum lipids. The secondary outcome is the difference in fasting serum lipids, between the final day of the placebo run-in, and 24 weeks. [ Time Frame: 0, 12, 24 weeks ]
  7. The natriuretic response, as assessed from the compensatory increase in plasma renin. The secondary outcome is the difference in plasma renin from end of placebo run-in to 24 weeks [ Time Frame: 0, 12 and 24 weeks ]


Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.


Layout table for eligibility information
Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 80 Years   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria;

Patients can proceed to placebo run-in if biochemical data available from previous 6 months, but cannot proceed to randomised treatment if eligibility not confirmed by baseline sample:

  1. Age 18-80
  2. Diagnosis of hypertension according to BHS criteria
  3. Systolic BP on permitted background treatment ≥ 140 mmHg and home BP ≥ 130mmHg. Patients may be included if the PI anticipates BP criteria for inclusion will be met at randomisation
  4. Indication for diuretic treatment:

    • Untreated + (age>55 AND/OR Black AND/OR renin<12mU/L)
    • receiving one or any permutation of the following: *ACEi, ARB, β-blocker, CCB, direct renin inhibitor
  5. At least one other component (i.e. additional to hypertension) of the metabolic syndrome (reduced HDL, raised triglycerides, glucose, waist circumference)* * Definition of Metabolic Syndrome according to the International Diabetes Federation, 2006: Central obesity (waist circumference > 94cm male (>90 if Asian), > 80 female plus two of:

    • SBP ≥ 130 or DBP ≥ 85 mmHg
    • Fasting glucose >5.6mmol/l
    • Fasting Triglycerides > 1.7 mmol/l (or on rx)
    • HDL < 1.03 mmol/l males, < 1.29 mmol/l females (or on rx)

Exclusion Criteria:

  1. Diabetes (types 1 or 2)
  2. Secondary hypertension
  3. eGFR < 45 mls/min
  4. Plasma K+ outside normal range on two successive measurements during screening
  5. Clinic SBP >200 mmHg or DBP >120mmHg, with PI discretion to override if home BP's lower
  6. Requirement for diuretic therapy (other than for hypertension)
  7. Absolute contra-indications to any of the study drugs
  8. Current therapy for cancer
  9. Anticipation of change in medical status planned surgical intervention requiring >2 weeks convalescence, actual or planned pregnancy)
  10. Inability to give informed consent
  11. Not on stable doses of all hypertensive medications to be continued throughout the study for a minimum of 4 weeks prior to randomisation, or not normally less than 2 weeks if early randomisation is required at the discretion of the PI.
  12. Participation in a clinical study involving an investigational drug/device within 4 weeks of screening.
  13. Any concomitant condition that may adversely affect the safety and/or efficacy of the study drug or severely limit the subject's lifespan or ability to complete the study
  14. Treatment with any of the following prohibited medications:

    • Oral corticosteroids within 3 months of Screening and prohibited during study participation.
    • Chronic stable or unstable use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs other than acetylsalicylic acid is prohibited. Chronic use is defined as >3 consecutive or nonconsecutive days of treatment per week. intermittent use of NSAIDs is strongly discouraged throughout the duration of this study. If intermittent treatment is required, NSAIDs must not be used for more than a total of 2 days. For all subjects requiring analgesic or anti-pyretic agents, the use of paracetamol is recommended during study participation.
    • The use of short-acting oral nitrates (eg, sublingual nitroglycerin) is permitted; however, subjects should not take short-acting oral nitrates within 4 hours of Screening or any subsequent study visit.
    • The use of long-acting oral nitrates is permitted; however, the dose must be stable for at least 2 weeks prior to screening/ randomisation.
    • Use of sympathomimetic decongestants is permitted; but, not within 1 week prior to screening or randomisation. or within 1 day prior to study visits;
    • The use of theophylline is permitted; however, the dose must be stable for at least 4 weeks prior to Screening and throughout study participation.
    • The use of phosphodiesterase (PDE) type V inhibitors is permitted; however, subjects must refrain from taking these medications within 1 day of Screening or any subsequent study visit.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT02351973


Locations
Layout table for location information
United Kingdom
Clinical Pharmacology Unit, Box 110, Level 3 ACCI, Addenbrookes Hospital
Cambridge, United Kingdom, CB2 2QQ
Sponsors and Collaborators
University of Cambridge
University of Leicester
University of Dundee
University of Glasgow
University of Edinburgh
Imperial College London
Barts & The London NHS Trust
King's College London
University of Birmingham
Investigators
Layout table for investigator information
Principal Investigator: Professor MJ Brown Cambridge University and Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust
Publications:
NICE/BHS. CG34 Hypertension - NICE guideline (all the recommendations). http://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/CG34/niceguidance /pdf/english 2006

Publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):
Layout table for additonal information
Responsible Party: Morris Brown, Professor, University of Cambridge
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02351973    
Other Study ID Numbers: UKCRN 4501
2009-010068-41 ( EudraCT Number )
First Posted: January 30, 2015    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: July 3, 2015
Last Verified: July 2015
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Layout table for MeSH terms
Hypertension
Vascular Diseases
Cardiovascular Diseases
Amiloride
Diuretics
Natriuretic Agents
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Acid Sensing Ion Channel Blockers
Sodium Channel Blockers
Membrane Transport Modulators
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Epithelial Sodium Channel Blockers
Diuretics, Potassium Sparing