Whole Brain Radiotherapy Versus Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy for Brain Metastases (Amadeus)
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|ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02220491|
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : August 20, 2014
Last Update Posted : May 20, 2020
|Condition or disease||Intervention/treatment||Phase|
|Brain Metastases||Radiation: Single-fraction radiotherapy Radiation: Whole-brain radiotherapy||Not Applicable|
This is a Phase II prospective clinical trial. Pre treatment evaluations include estimation of life expectancy, Creatinine (GFR) and MRI brain with contrast. An assessment of cognitive function using Montreal Cognitive Assessment questionnaire, assessment of daily living activities using the Modified Barthel's index and quality of life assessment using EORTC QLQ-PAL-15 & BN-20 questionnaires will be performed in clinic. Karnofsky Performance Status will also be assessed by the clinician. If all assessments are within the eligibility criteria then the patient can be recruited. Before treatment begins a history documenting baseline symptoms using NCI Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) Version 4.0 and a neurological examination documenting baseline deficits must be obtained.
If patient is randomized to standard treatment of whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) then subjects will have a non-contrast CT scan using a slice thickness of 2.5 mm or less to plan radiotherapy. If patient are randomized to single fraction radiotherapy then a contrast CT will be used as this aids in identifying metastatic tumours within the brain. Also for the single fraction arm if a contrast-enhanced diagnostic MRI was obtained ≤ 10 days before the CT planning scan, with a single-plane high-resolution sequence or low-resolution sequences in two planes, it can be used for treatment planning. If the contrast-enhanced diagnostic MRI was obtained > 10 days before the CT planning scan or there is no diagnostic MRI, the subject requires a gadolinium-enhanced, high-resolution MRI sequence for fusion in the treatment planning system. During treatment, patients will have daily online cone beam CT scans to apply setup corrections to ensure treatment accuracy. To ensure minimal movement during radiotherapy all subjects will be immobilized lying on their back in a plastic headshell with an integrated bite block.
For subjects in the single-fraction arm that are not requiring steroids before radiotherapy, dexamethasone 8 mg 1 hour before the radiotherapy and for 5 days afterwards is required. For subjects in the single-fraction arm that are requiring corticosteroids for symptom management before radiotherapy, dexamethasone 8 mg before treatment and 8 mg 2 times daily for 2 days is required. Beginning three days after radiotherapy, a taper back to the pre-radiotherapy dose can be done swiftly over 4-6 days. However, for subjects who have been on dexamethasone for more than 2 weeks at this time point, slow tapering from the pre-radiotherapy dose using decrements of 0.5 - 2 mg every 3-5 days should be used to prevent a hypocortisolemia. For subjects in the 5-fraction arm, corticosteroids will be prescribed according to the preference of the treating radiation oncologist. Anti-sickness medication and steroids will be prescribed are required before each fraction in both arms.
Following therapy completion, all patients will be seen at 6 weeks, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. At each visit history and neurological examination will be performed. Cognitive Function, Karnofsky Performance Status, Quality of life and Adverse Events will all be assessed and recorded. Activities of Daily Living and steroid use will be assessed by telephone consultation every 4 weeks (monthly) for 1 year. Steroid use will be confirmed by evaluating the pharmacy prescription database.
Patients will have contrast-enhanced MRI brain at every time point with a creatinine 1 week before each MRI to ensure safety of intravenous contrast administration. Steroid use will be recorded in a patient diary for first 6 weeks post treatment and monthly by telephone discussion.
|Study Type :||Interventional (Clinical Trial)|
|Actual Enrollment :||20 participants|
|Intervention Model:||Parallel Assignment|
|Masking:||None (Open Label)|
|Official Title:||A Randomized Phase II Study of 20 Gy in 5 Fractions Whole Brain Radiotherapy Versus 15 Gy in 1 Fraction Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy for One to Ten Brain Metastases|
|Actual Study Start Date :||October 1, 2014|
|Actual Primary Completion Date :||May 18, 2020|
|Actual Study Completion Date :||May 18, 2020|
Active Comparator: Whole-brain radiotherapy
All subjects will have a non-contrast CT scan using a slice thickness of 2.5mm or less.
The Brain contour will be generated using the segmentation wizard and edits as required.
PTV_Brain is an expansion of the Brain by 5mm. 99% of PTV_Brain is to be covered by 95% of 20 Gy in 5 fractions using 6-10 MV photons in a parallel-opposed pair lateral beam arrangement.
Radiation: Whole-brain radiotherapy
Whole brain radiotherapy delivering 20 Gy in five fractions to brain metastases
Experimental: Single-fraction radiotherapy
Immobilized in the mask, the subject will be imaged for radiotherapy planning with a CT slice thickness of 1.25 mm or less and an axial resolution of < 0.7 mm (CT field of view < 35 cm). Subjects that require contrast with GFR 45-59 will have pre-hydration, contrast dose modification and/or Mucomyst administration to preserve renal function, according to standard practice for radiological imaging at the institution.
Radiation: Single-fraction radiotherapy
Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) delivering 15 Gy in one fraction to brain metastases
- Accrual [ Time Frame: 8 months ]The time of accrual of 20 subjects will be recorded in months from the official study opening at each cancer centre until the 20th patient is accrued. The rate of accrual will be calculated by dividing the number of patients by the number of months it took to accrue them
- Intracranial disease control [ Time Frame: 3 months ]All subjects who complete radiotherapy and have imaging at 6 weeks will be considered evaluable for response. Those who exhibit objective disease progression on imaging before 6 weeks will also be considered evaluable for response.
- Compare the use of corticosteroids [ Time Frame: Every 4 weeks for 1 year ]The subjects' use of corticosteroids will be recorded in a diary for the first 6 weeks and assessed monthly with phone follow-up. The amount and pattern of corticosteroid use will be compared between the two arms of the study.
- Compare the incidence of retreatment with cranial radiotherapy [ Time Frame: 3 months ]Subjects with new brain metastases can be treated in a number of ways if their performance status remains good. If 3 months have passed since their initial treatment and there are 1-10 new metastases, subjects can receive the study treatment with 15 Gy in 1 fraction again. However, if the new brain metastases are detected within 3 months or there are more than 10 new brain metastases, subjects must have WBRT, rather than treatment to the metastases alone. Subjects with progression or relapse of a treated brain metastasis can be considered for surgery, retreatment with radiosurgery or retreatment with WBRT. Subjects with poor performance status should be considered for best supportive care.
- Compare the incidence of acute and late side effects [ Time Frame: 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, 9 months, 12 months ]The study will use the descriptions and grading scales found in the revised NCI Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) for grading of acute and late side effects. The incidence of the various side effects will be compared between the two arms.
- Compare the time to decline in activities of daily living using the Modified Barthel Index [ Time Frame: Every 4 weeks for 1 year ]The Modified Barthel index will be administered at baseline and at each follow-up visit. The scores will be recorded and analysed. The minimum clinically important difference for this scale is 10 points.
- Compare the time to decline in Karnofsky Performance Status < 70 [ Time Frame: 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, 9 months, 12 months ]The KPS will be recorded at each clinic visit. The patient will be regarded as having had a decline in KPS when it falls below 70, at which time subjects are no longer independent.
- Compare the time to decline in cognition [ Time Frame: 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, 9 months, 12 months ]The MoCA questionnaire will be administered at baseline and at each follow-up visit (Appendix II). The score will be recorded and analysed. A decline in MOCA score of 3 is considered to be clinically significant.
- Time to decline in quality of life [ Time Frame: 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, 9 months, 12 months ]The EORTC QLQ-PAL-15 will be administered at baseline and at each follow-up visit. The EORTC BN-20 (brain-specific) quality of life questionnaire will be administered at baseline and at each follow-up visit. The quality of life questionnaire scores will be recorded and analysed.
To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT02220491
|Canada, British Columbia|
|British Columbia Cancer Agency|
|Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, V5Z 4E6|
|Principal Investigator:||Nichol Alan, MD||British Columbia Cancer Agency|