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Efficacy, Safety and Pharmacokinetics of Teriflunomide in Pediatric Patients With Relapsing Forms of Multiple Sclerosis (TERIKIDS)

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02201108
Recruitment Status : Active, not recruiting
First Posted : July 25, 2014
Results First Posted : November 30, 2020
Last Update Posted : July 15, 2022
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Sanofi ( Genzyme, a Sanofi Company )

Brief Summary:

Primary Objective:

To assess the effect of teriflunomide in comparison to placebo on disease activity measured by time to first clinical relapse after randomization in children and adolescents 10 to 17 years of age with relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS).

Secondary Objective:

  • To assess the effect of teriflunomide in comparison to placebo on disease activity/progression measured by brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and on cognitive function.
  • To evaluate the safety and tolerability of teriflunomide in comparison to placebo.
  • To evaluate the pharmacokinetics (PK) of teriflunomide.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Multiple Sclerosis Drug: Teriflunomide Drug: Placebo Phase 3

Detailed Description:

The study duration included a screening period up to 4 weeks, a double-blind treatment period of up to 96 weeks, an open-label period which included the remainder of the initial 96 weeks, where applicable, and a 96-week extension, i.e., up to a maximum of 192 weeks after randomization. There was a follow-up period of 4 weeks for participants discontinuing treatment.

Within the 96 weeks double-blind treatment period, the first 4 weeks were PK run-in phase in which PK samples (blood samples) were collected from participants and then 4 weeks of analysis (no samples drawn). The PK run-in phase (total 8 weeks) was intended to provide individual PK parameters to allow the dose adjustment to the 14 milligrams (mg) adult-equivalent dose for the rest of the study.

Participants who experienced a relapse after the PK run-in phase (8 weeks) and confirmed by the Relapse Adjudication Panel and participants who fulfilled MRI criteria (high number of new lesions at weeks 36, 48 or 72 compared to previous images) had the option to continue in an open-label teriflunomide treatment arm up to 192 weeks from randomization.

An optional additional extension period is available for young participants with teriflunomide until the participants are 18 years old and/or able to switch to commercial product, whichever comes first.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 166 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Quadruple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Two Year, Multicenter, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel Group Trial to Evaluate Efficacy, Safety, Tolerability, and Pharmacokinetics of Teriflunomide Administered Orally Once Daily in Pediatric Patients With Relapsing Forms of Multiple Sclerosis Followed by an Open-Label Extension
Actual Study Start Date : July 16, 2014
Actual Primary Completion Date : October 25, 2019
Estimated Study Completion Date : June 25, 2025

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine


Arm Intervention/treatment
Placebo Comparator: Placebo
Matching placebo tablets
Drug: Placebo
Pharmaceutical form:tablet, Route of administration: oral

Experimental: Teriflunomide
Teriflunomide oral tablet, three dosages (3.5, 7 or 14 mg) to reach 14 mg adult equivalent
Drug: Teriflunomide
Pharmaceutical form:film-coated tablet, Route of administration: oral
Other Name: AUBAGIO, HMR1726




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Time to First Confirmed Clinical Relapse [ Time Frame: Baseline up to Week 96 ]
    Time to first clinical relapse was defined as the duration (in weeks) between randomization and first confirmed clinical relapse. Clinical relapses were defined as new or recurrent neurological symptoms not associated with fever or infection, lasting at least 24 hours, and accompanied by new objective neurological findings upon neurological examination and documented by a standardized, quantified functional system score (FSSs) which included 8 items and items were rated on different scales: brain stem, cerebellar and cerebral functions rated on a scale of 0 to 5; visual, pyramidal, sensory and bowel/bladder rated on a scale of 0 to 6 and ambulation on a scale of 0 to 12, where higher score in each scale indicated worsened neurological function. Confirmed clinical relapse were reviewed and confirmed by an independent Relapse Adjudication Panel (RAP). A participant without confirmed clinical relapse, was considered as clinical relapse free until the end of Week 96.


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Probability of Participants Who Were Clinical Relapse Free at Weeks 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 168 and 192 [ Time Frame: Weeks 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 168 and 192 ]
    Participant was considered free of clinical relapse if the participant had no confirmed clinical relapse before treatment discontinuation/completion in 192 weeks treatment period. Clinical relapses: new/recurrent neurological symptoms not associated with fever/infection, lasted at least 24 hours, and accompanied by new objective neurological findings upon neurological examination and documented by standardized, quantified FSSs which included 8 items: rated on different scales: brain stem, cerebellar and cerebral functions rated on scale of 0 to 5; visual, pyramidal, sensory and bowel/bladder rated on scale of 0 to 6 & ambulation on scale of 0 to 12, where higher score in each scale indicated worsened neurological function. New/recurrent symptoms occurred less than 30 days following onset of relapse were considered part of same relapse. Probability of participants who were clinical relapse free at specified weeks were estimated by Kaplan-Meier method and reported.

  2. Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Assessment: Number of New or Enlarged T2 Lesions Per MRI Scan [ Time Frame: Baseline up to Week 192 ]
    Number of new or enlarged T2 lesions per scan was defined as the total number of new or enlarged T2 lesion that occurred during the 192 weeks treatment period divided by the total number of scans performed during 192 weeks. To account for the different numbers of scans performed among the participants, a negative binomial regression model with robust variance estimation was used. The model included the total number of new or enlarged T2-lesions as the response variable, with treatment group, region, pubertal status and age as covariates and log-transformed number of scans as an offset variable.

  3. Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging Assessment: Number of T1 Gadolinium (Gd)-Enhancing T1 Lesions Per MRI Scan [ Time Frame: Baseline up to Week 192 ]
    The number of T1 Gd-Enhancing lesions per scan was defined as the total number of Gd-enhancing lesions that occurred during the 192 weeks treatment period divided by the total number of scans performed during 192 weeks. To account for the different number of scans performed among the participants, a negative binomial regression model with robust variance estimation was used. The model included the total number of T1-lesions as the response variable, with treatment group, region, pubertal status and age as covariates and log-transformed number of scans as an offset variable.

  4. Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging Assessment: Change From Baseline in Volume of T2 Lesions at Weeks 24, 36, 48, 72, 96, 144 and 192 [ Time Frame: Baseline, DB period: Weeks 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96; OL period: Weeks 48, 96, 144 and 192 ]
    Volume of T2 lesions was measured by MRI scan.

  5. Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging Assessment: Change From Baseline in Volume of T1 Hypointense Lesions [ Time Frame: Baseline, DB period: Weeks 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96; OL period: Weeks 48, 96, 144 and 192 ]
    Volume of T1 hypointense lesions was measured by MRI scan.

  6. Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging Assessment: Number of New T1 Hypointense Lesions Per MRI Scan [ Time Frame: Baseline up to Week 192 ]
    The number of new T1 hypointense lesions were obtained from MRI scans.

  7. Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging Assessment: Percentage of Participants Free of New or Enlarged MRI T2-Lesions [ Time Frame: Baseline, Weeks 24, 48, 72, 96, 144 and 192 ]
    Percentage of participants who were free of new or enlarged T2 lesions at Weeks 24, 48, 72, 96, 144 and 192 were reported.

  8. Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging Assessment: Percent Change From Baseline in Brain Volume at Weeks 24, 36, 48, 72, 96, 144 and 192 [ Time Frame: Baseline, DB period: Weeks 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96; OL period: Weeks 48, 96, 144 and 192 ]
    Percent change from baseline in brain volume (assessed using MRI scans of the Brain) at Weeks 24, 36, 48,72, 96, 144 and 192 was reported.

  9. Cognitive Assessment: Change From Baseline in Total Number of Correct Substitutions Measured by Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) at Weeks 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 168 and 192 [ Time Frame: Baseline, DB period: Weeks 24, 48, 72 and 96; OL period: Weeks 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 168 and 192 ]
    SDMT measures the time to pair abstract symbols with specific numbers. It is a simple substitution task that gives the examinee 90 seconds to pair specific numbers with given geometric figures as a measure for screening cognitive impairment. The SDMT score is the number of correct substitution and ranged from 0 (worst outcome) to 110 (best outcome), where higher score indicated better cognitive function.

  10. Cognitive Assessment: Change From Baseline in Number of Completed Items Measured by Symbol Digit Modalities Test at Weeks 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 168 and 192 [ Time Frame: Baseline, DB period: Weeks 24, 48, 72 and 96; OL period: Weeks 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 168 and 192 ]
    SDMT measures the time to pair abstract symbols with specific numbers. It is a simple substitution task that gives the examinee 90 seconds to pair specific numbers with given geometric figures as a measure for screening cognitive impairment. The SDMT score is the number of completed items and ranged from 0 (worst outcome) to 110 (best outcome), where higher score indicated better cognitive function.

  11. Cognitive Assessment: Change From Baseline in Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised (BVMT-R) Scores at Weeks 96 and 192 [ Time Frame: Baseline, Weeks 96 and 192 ]
    The BVMT consists of three trials in which participants must recall shapes by drawing figures on a blank page (response booklet) after being given the opportunity to memorize the figures (given in BMVT-R form) for 10 seconds. BMVT-R form consists of six figures. Points are awarded based on the accuracy of the drawn figure and by correct placement on the blank page. A minimum of 0 to 12 points/scores are awarded per trial, so a participant can score between 0 and 36 points for all three trials (by adding the points/score from each trial), where higher score indicates better outcome.

  12. Cognitive Assessment: Change From Baseline in Trail Making Test- Part A (TMT-A) Test Scores (in Seconds) at Week 96 and 192 [ Time Frame: Baseline, Weeks 96 and 192 ]
    'Trail Making Test Part A' is a neuropsychological test of visual attention and task switching. The task requires a participant to 'connect-the-dots' of 25 consecutive numbers (1,2, 3, etc.) in sequential order on a sheet of paper or computer screen. The goal of the participant is to finish the test as quickly as possible, and the time taken to complete the test used as the primary performance metric (in seconds). This is a timed test and the number of seconds to complete the task is recorded. Maximum time allowed is 300 seconds. A lower score indicated better cognitive function.

  13. Cognitive Assessment: Change From Baseline in Trail Making Test B (TMT-B) Test Scores (in Seconds) at Weeks 96 and 192 [ Time Frame: Baseline, Weeks 96 and 192 ]
    TMT-B is a cognitive test that gives a measure of various aspects of cognitive performance. It is used to measure cognitive fatigue. The test consisted of 25 circles containing 13 sequential numbers (1 to 13) and 12 sequential letters (A to L) positioned. The test evaluates the time (in seconds) to correctly order letters and numbers in alternate order (1, A, 2, B etc.). Maximum time allowed is 300 seconds, where less time/lower score indicated better cognitive function/performance.

  14. Cognitive Assessment: Change From Baseline in Beery Visual-motor Integration (BVMI) Scores at Weeks 96 and 192 [ Time Frame: Baseline, Weeks 96 and 192 ]
    The Beery VMI is a non-verbal assessment that assessed the extent to which individuals can integrate their visual and motor abilities. The participants were provided with geometric designs ranging from simple line drawings to more complex figures and were asked to copy the designs. The test consisted of 24 figures. One point was scored for each successful copy of drawings and no scoring was given when the participant failed to copy the drawings properly. Each successful copying of drawings was summed up and the total was scored on a scale ranged from 0 to 24, where higher score indicated better visual construction skills/better visual and motor abilities and lower score indicated poor visual construction skills/poor visual and motor abilities.

  15. Cognitive Assessment: Change From Baseline in Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence-II (WASI-II) Vocabulary Total Raw Scores at Weeks 96 and 192 [ Time Frame: Baseline, Weeks 96 and 192 ]
    The WASI-II: Vocabulary test is a quick estimate of an individual's level of intellectual functioning which comprised of 31 total items that required the participant to orally define 3 images and 28 words presented both orally and visually. Items 1 to 3 rated on a score of 0 or 1, items 4 and 5 rated on a score of 0 or 2, items 6 to 31 rated on a scale of 0 to 2. Each item score was summed up to derive the total score which ranged from 0 (minimum score) to 59 (maximum score), where higher score indicated better level of intellectual functioning/higher level of intelligence.

  16. Cognitive Assessment: Change From Baseline in Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS) Letter Fluency Total Correct Raw Score at Weeks 96 and 192 [ Time Frame: Baseline, Weeks 96 and 192 ]
    Letter Fluency is a condition measured in the D-KEFS. Participants were asked to name as many words as they can, starting with a specified letter for 60 seconds. The words cannot be names, places, numbers or grammatical variants of previous answers. Repeated answers were not scored as a correct response. There were 3 trials, with 3 different letters. The total number of correct responses was totaled for all 3 trials and a letter fluency score was given. A higher score was considered better. There was no set range as the score depends on how many correct words the participant relays in the given time period.

  17. Cognitive Assessment: Change From Baseline in Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System Category Fluency Total Correct Raw Score at Weeks 96 and 192 [ Time Frame: Baseline, Weeks 96 and 192 ]
    Category Fluency is a condition measured in the D-KEFS. It measured participant's ability to generate words from three different categories (e.g., fruits, vegetables and animals), within a minute for each category. Total score was number of correct words for each category with no points for repetitions or non-words. Score ranged from 0 to unlimited, where 0 = low score, higher score indicated better performance.

  18. Cognitive Assessment - Selective Reminding Test (SRT): Change From Baseline in Total Number of Words on Delayed Recall at Weeks 96 and 192 [ Time Frame: Baseline, Weeks 96 and 192 ]
    SRT is a test to assess verbal learning and memory. During the administration of the SRT only the examiner and the participant should be in the testing room. A list of twelve words was read aloud by the examiner at a rate of one word per two seconds. The participant is asked to recall all twelve words after a 30 minute delay. Only the words that were missed on the preceding trial were given in the consecutive trial. The total score represented a sum score of total 6 trials, therefore the score range was from 0 to 72. The lower the score the worse the outcome, higher score indicated better recall.

  19. DB: Pharmacokinetics: Steady-state Trough Concentration (Ctrough) of Teriflunomide [ Time Frame: Predose on Week 36 ]
    Ctrough was defined as the concentration reached by the drug before the next dose administered. Data for this outcome measure was planned to be collected and analyzed separately for each dose of Teriflunomide. PK samples for teriflunomide 3.5 mg were collected during the first 8 weeks but all participants were switched to teriflunomide 7 mg after Week 8. Hence, plasma concentration of teriflunomide 7 mg and 14 mg were reported.

  20. OL: Time to First Confirmed Clinical Relapse [ Time Frame: Baseline up to Week 192 ]
    Time to first clinical relapse was defined as duration (in weeks) after enrollment in OL period and first confirmed clinical relapse. Clinical relapses were defined as new or recurrent neurological symptoms not associated with fever or infection, lasted at least 24 hours and accompanied by new objective neurological findings upon neurological examination and documented by standardized, quantified FSSs which included 8 items and items were rated on different scales: brain stem, cerebellar & cerebral functions rated on scale of 0 to 5; visual, pyramidal, sensory and bowel/bladder rated on scale of 0 to 6 and ambulation on scale of 0 to 12 where higher score in each scale indicated worsened neurological function. Confirmed clinical relapse were reviewed and confirmed by independent RAP. Participant without confirmed clinical relapse, was considered as clinical relapse free until end of Week 192.

  21. OL: Pharmacokinetics: Steady-state Trough Concentration (Ctrough) of Teriflunomide [ Time Frame: Pre-dose at Week 36 ]
    Ctrough was defined as the concentration reached by the drug before the next dose is administered. Data for this outcome measure was planned to be collected and analyzed separately for each dose of teriflunomide. PK samples for teriflunomide 3.5 mg were collected during the first 8 weeks but all participants were switched to teriflunomide 7 mg after Week 8. Hence, plasma concentration of teriflunomide 7 mg and 14 mg were reported.



Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.


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Ages Eligible for Study:   10 Years to 17 Years   (Child)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria
  • Participants with relapsing MS were eligible. Participants who met the criteria of MS based on McDonald criteria 2010 and International Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis Study Group (IPMSSG) criteria for pediatric MS, version of 2012 and had:

    • at least one relapse (or attack) in the 12 months preceding screening or,
    • at least two relapses (or attack) in the 24 months preceding screening.
  • Less than 18 years of age and greater than or equal to (>=) 10 years of age at randomization. Specific for the Russian Federation from 18 December 2014 to 26 July 2016, less than or equal to 17 years of age and >= 13 years of age at randomization.
  • Signed informed consent/assent obtained from participant and participant's legal representative (parents or guardians) according to local regulations.

Exclusion criteria:

  • Expanded disability status scale score greater than 5.5 at screening or randomization visits.
  • Relapse within 30 days prior to randomization.
  • Treated with:

    • glatiramer acetate, interferons, or dimethyl fumarate within 1 month prior to randomization.
    • fingolimod, or intravenous immunoglobulins within 3 months prior to randomization.
    • natalizumab, other immunosuppressant or immunomodulatory agents such as cyclophosphamide, azathioprine, cyclosporine, methotrexate, mycophenolate, within 6 months prior to randomization.
    • cladribine or mitoxantrone within 2 years prior to randomization.
  • Treated with alemtuzumab at any time.
  • History of human immunodeficiency virus infection.
  • Contraindication for MRI.
  • Pregnant or breast-feeding females or those who plan to become pregnant during the study.
  • Female participants of child-bearing potential not using highly effective contraceptive method (contraception in both female and male was required).

The above information was not intended to contain all considerations relevant to a participant's potential participation in a clinical trial.


Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT02201108


Locations
Show Show 55 study locations
Sponsors and Collaborators
Genzyme, a Sanofi Company
Investigators
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Study Director: Clinical Sciences & Operations Sanofi
  Study Documents (Full-Text)

Documents provided by Sanofi ( Genzyme, a Sanofi Company ):
Study Protocol  [PDF] December 10, 2020
Statistical Analysis Plan  [PDF] June 28, 2021

Publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):
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Responsible Party: Genzyme, a Sanofi Company
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02201108    
Other Study ID Numbers: EFC11759
2011-005249-12 ( EudraCT Number )
U1111-1124-0983 ( Other Identifier: WHO Universal Trial Reference Number (UTRN) )
First Posted: July 25, 2014    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: November 30, 2020
Last Update Posted: July 15, 2022
Last Verified: June 2022
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: Yes
Plan Description: Qualified researchers may request access to patient level data and related study documents including the clinical study report, study protocol with any amendments, blank case report form, statistical analysis plan, and dataset specifications. Patient level data will be anonymized and study documents will be redacted to protect the privacy of trial participants. Further details on Sanofi's data sharing criteria, eligible studies, and process for requesting access can be found at: https://vivli.org
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Multiple Sclerosis
Sclerosis
Pathologic Processes
Demyelinating Autoimmune Diseases, CNS
Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous System
Nervous System Diseases
Demyelinating Diseases
Autoimmune Diseases
Immune System Diseases
Teriflunomide
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
Analgesics, Non-Narcotic
Analgesics
Sensory System Agents
Peripheral Nervous System Agents
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Anti-Inflammatory Agents
Antirheumatic Agents
Immunosuppressive Agents
Immunologic Factors