Active Preoperative Anemia Management in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery (APART)
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|ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02189889|
Recruitment Status : Terminated (Initial patients were seen at St Paul Hospital. Enrollment changes occurred with the move to Clements Hospital. We were unable to identify an infusion room at CUH despite an exhaustive search for alternatives and forced to terminate early.)
First Posted : July 15, 2014
Results First Posted : October 23, 2020
Last Update Posted : October 23, 2020
Anemia which is a decreased blood count or lower than normal hemoglobin (hgb), is a major health problem for patients having heart surgery. Hemoglobin is the part of our blood that carries oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body. Anemia that is present before surgery, called preoperative anemia, is a risk factor for an increased chance of morbidity (illness) and/or mortality (death) after heart surgery. It is also an important indicator of blood transfusion necessity. Recent clinical research investigations done to study preoperative anemia suggest a blood transfusion can damage the immune system (the system that protects us from disease) which can lead to infection, organ dysfunction (especially of the heart, kidney, brain), prolonged hospital stays, as well as increased supplies, resources and cost in surgical patients. Comprehensive anemia management can reduce or eliminate the need for blood transfusions and provide better outcomes after surgery. Therefore, controlling anemia before surgery is extremely important, and could be a lifesaving measure.
This pilot, feasibility study is being done for several reasons. First of all, it will test the the safety and effectiveness of using a short-course of two medications, erythropoietin (EPO) and Feraheme (iron given intravenously [IV]), to increase hemoglobin levels in order to improve preoperative anemia, reduce transfusions and lower postoperative complications in anemic patients undergoing heart surgery. Secondly, findings will be used to design a large randomized controlled trial (RCT). The RCT will establish a protocol to actively manage anemia before surgery, thus reducing transfusions during surgery and improving recovery afterwards. It will also help identify valuable information regarding what needs to be done for timely completion of the planned RCT.
EPO is a medication approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) used to treat anemia in patients with certain conditions in order to reduce blood transfusions. And although approved for use during surgery, it has not been FDA approved for use in cardiac (heart) or vascular (blood vessels, including veins and arteries) surgery. Common side effects include nausea, vomiting, itching, headache, injection site pain, chills, deep vein thrombosis (blood clot), cough, and changes in blood pressure (BP). Feraheme is an iron replacement product approved for the treatment of low iron anemia in adult patients. It may cause serious allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis (severe, whole body allergic reaction), as well as low BP and excessive iron storage.
Patients meeting all eligibility requirements that consent to participate will be randomized into the study. Randomization is being placed by chance (like a flip of a coin) into one of two study groups, the treatment group or the control group. There is an equal chance of being placed into either group, which will be done by a computer.
- The Treatment Group will receive a 300 unit (U) per kilogram (kg) injection of EPO and a 510 milligram (mg) IV infusion of Feraheme 7-28 days before the day of surgery. And again 1-7 days before the day of surgery, a second dose of both of these medications will be given. The third dose, of EPO only, will be administered 2 days after surgery. Before initiating a dose or giving a subsequent dose, laboratory parameters will be measured to assess the hemoglobin level and response to the medication. If blood values increase too rapidly or are too high, the meds will not be started or, if already dosed, they will not be given again.
- The Control Group will receive no preoperative intervention for anemia unless lab results show iron deficiency anemia. The control group will be screened for the presence of iron deficiency anemia by evaluating blood laboratory values drawn during the baseline or preoperative visit. If lab results indicate iron deficiency anemia, over-the-counter oral iron will be recommended, to take until the day of surgery. In doing so, patients may benefit by potentially reducing the need for blood transfusions.
Data will be collected from all participants from the preoperative visits throughout the admission, including lab results, medications, vital signs, information about the procedure, transfusions, and any problems or adverse events.
|Condition or disease||Intervention/treatment||Phase|
|Anemia Cardiovascular Disease||Drug: EPO Drug: Feraheme||Phase 1 Phase 2|
|Study Type :||Interventional (Clinical Trial)|
|Actual Enrollment :||5 participants|
|Intervention Model:||Parallel Assignment|
|Masking:||None (Open Label)|
|Official Title:||Active Preoperative Anemia Management to Reduce Erythrocyte Transfusion in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery (APART): A Pilot, Feasibility Study|
|Actual Study Start Date :||April 9, 2013|
|Actual Primary Completion Date :||July 26, 2019|
|Actual Study Completion Date :||July 26, 2019|
Active Comparator: EPO and Feraheme
Patients in the treatment group will receive a subcutaneous injection of EPO 300U/kg at the Baseline visit, the Preoperative visit and on POD 2; and an infusion of Feraheme 510mg at the Baseline visit and the Preoperative visit.
The treatment group will receive up to three doses of EPO 300U/kg. The first dose of study medication will be administered up to 28 days before the day of surgery and the second will be administered 1-7 days before the day of surgery. These first two doses will be given at least 7 days apart. A third dose may be administered two days following surgery. All 3 doses will be administered per surveillance strategy guidelines.
Other Name: erythropoietin
Supplementation with Feraheme, 510mg delivered as an IV infusion, will be given following the first two preoperative doses of EPO.
Other Name: IV iron
No Intervention: Control
The control group will receive no preoperative intervention for anemia. The exception being iron deficiency anemia found during baseline. If laboratory values indicate iron deficiency, oral iron will be recommended to take until surgery.
- # of Participants Who Adhered to the Study Protocol [ Time Frame: Preoperative 1st dose through Postoperative Day (POD) 2. ]Successful adherence is defined as adhering to dosing in ≥90% of patients for ≥90% of the doses deemed appropriate by the surveillance strategy.
- Change From Baseline Hemoglobin Level Assessed at Different Time Points Within the 2 Arms. [ Time Frame: Change from Baseline hemoglobin level to day of surgery (DOS), to POD 5. ]
- Change From Baseline Reticulocyte Count Assessed at Different Time Points Within the 2 Arms. [ Time Frame: Change from Baseline reticulocyte count to DOS, to POD 5. ]
- Number of Blood Products Utilized Per Patient Receiving Erythrocyte Transfusions. [ Time Frame: Preoperative 1st dose through 30 days following surgery. ]Number of blood products utilized per patient receiving erythrocyte transfusions, including red blood cells, platelets and plasma.
- Incidence of Pre-defined Clinical Events in Each of the Study Arms [ Time Frame: Preoperative 1st dose through 30 days following surgery. ]Incidence of mortality, major cardiac, renal, neurological events (associated with anemia) and infection. These events will include myocardial infarction, prolonged low-output state, encephalopathy, duration of mechanical ventilation, renal insufficiency,mortality and dialysis dependence at 30 days.
To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT02189889
|United States, Texas|
|Clements University Hospital|
|Dallas, Texas, United States, 75390-8894|
|Clements University Hospital|
|Dallas, Texas, United States, 75390|
|Principal Investigator:||Philip E. Greilich, MD||University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center|