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Evaluation of Tolerability and Pharmacokinetics of Roflumilast, 250μg and 500μg, as add-on to Standard COPD Treatment to Treat Severe COPD (OPTIMIZE)

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02165826
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : June 18, 2014
Results First Posted : March 14, 2017
Last Update Posted : April 20, 2017
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
AstraZeneca

Brief Summary:
The purpose of this study is to evaluate discontinuation rates of roflumilast using an up-titration regimen for the first 4 weeks of treatment compared with continuous treatment of 500 μg one daily (OD) during the entire 12-week main period, and to evaluate if participants who do not tolerate roflumilast 500 μg OD have a drug exposure with 250 μg roflumilast OD similar to that observed in other participants with the 500 μg OD dose.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Drug: Roflumilast Drug: Roflumilast Placebo Drug: Standard of Care COPD Treatment Phase 3

Detailed Description:

Roflumilast is a product which has been approved for the treatment of severe chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) and its approved dose is 500μg once daily. This study is primarily designed to see whether alternation in this dose can improve tolerability of Roflumilast in COPD patients. Therefore one in three patients will start roflumilast therapy at a lower dose of 250μg once daily, another one in three will only take the 500μg tablet every other day (and one placebo every other day). Rest of them will start the regular dose of 500μg once daily right away and see whether starting with a lower dose of Roflumilast will lead to better tolerability. Furthermore, the study will see if patients who do not tolerate roflumilast should be given a lower dose of 250μg once daily.

Lastly, the study will investigate what the body does to roflumilast. Patients with a history of COPD for at least last 12 months and a former smoker or current smoker with history of at least 10 pack years will be invited to participate.

The main study period lasts for a maximum of 15 weeks and patients will have to visit the study site up to 6 times. If patients are not tolerating roflumilast, the investigators may switch them to the down titration period where they may be on a lower dose for rest of the study. Then patients will remain in the down titration period for additional 8 weeks and will have to visit the study site 4 times. Most of the visits will take approximately 1 to 2 hours. However, one visit in the main period and 1 or 2 visits in the down titration period will take approximately 6 to 7 hours. These visits are longer to allow time to conduct blood taking.

The Randomization visit is considered the Baseline visit and for participants that discontinue the Main Period and continue into the Down-Titration Period Day 1 of Down Titration is considered BaselineDT.


Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 1323 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Quadruple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Multicenter, Randomized, Double-blind Phase 3 Study to Evaluate Tolerability and Pharmacokinetics of 500 μg Roflumilast Once Daily With an Up-titration Regimen in COPD, Including an Open-label Down-titration Period Evaluating Tolerability and Pharmacokinetics of 250 μg Roflumilast Once Daily in Subjects Not Tolerating 500 μg Roflumilast Once-daily
Actual Study Start Date : May 1, 2014
Actual Primary Completion Date : September 1, 2015
Actual Study Completion Date : September 1, 2015

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

Drug Information available for: Roflumilast

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Roflumilast 500 μg once daily
Roflumilast 500 μg tablets, orally, once daily for 12 weeks. Any participants not tolerating study treatment will be prematurely discontinued and will receive roflumilast 250 μg, tablets, orally, once daily for 8 weeks.
Drug: Roflumilast
Roflumilast tablets
Other Name: Daxas, Daliresp, Libertek

Drug: Standard of Care COPD Treatment
The participant is on standard of care COPD maintenance treatment including LABAs, long-acting anticholinergics, or any combination thereof taken on a constant daily dose within 12 weeks prior to Screening (Visit V0) Examples of LABA containing products are: Formoterol, Salmeterol, Indacaterol, Formoterol/Budesonide, Salmeterol/Fluticasone, Treatment including lon-acting anticholinergics: Tiotropium, Aclidinium.

Experimental: Roflumilast 500 μg every other day
Roflumilast 500 μg, tablets, orally, every other day, and roflumilast placebo-matching tablets, orally, every other day on non-treatment days, for 4 weeks, followed by roflumilast 500 μg, tablets, orally, once daily, for 8 weeks. Any participants not tolerating study treatment will be prematurely discontinued and will receive roflumilast 250 μg, tablets, orally, once daily for 8 weeks.
Drug: Roflumilast
Roflumilast tablets
Other Name: Daxas, Daliresp, Libertek

Drug: Roflumilast Placebo
Roflumilast placebo-matching tablets

Drug: Standard of Care COPD Treatment
The participant is on standard of care COPD maintenance treatment including LABAs, long-acting anticholinergics, or any combination thereof taken on a constant daily dose within 12 weeks prior to Screening (Visit V0) Examples of LABA containing products are: Formoterol, Salmeterol, Indacaterol, Formoterol/Budesonide, Salmeterol/Fluticasone, Treatment including lon-acting anticholinergics: Tiotropium, Aclidinium.

Experimental: Roflumilast 250 μg once daily
Roflumilast 250 μg, tablets, orally, once daily for 4 weeks, followed by roflumilast 500 μg, tablets, orally, once daily, for 8 weeks. Any participants not tolerating study treatment will be prematurely discontinued and will receive roflumilast 250 μg, tablets, orally, once daily for 8 weeks.
Drug: Roflumilast
Roflumilast tablets
Other Name: Daxas, Daliresp, Libertek

Drug: Standard of Care COPD Treatment
The participant is on standard of care COPD maintenance treatment including LABAs, long-acting anticholinergics, or any combination thereof taken on a constant daily dose within 12 weeks prior to Screening (Visit V0) Examples of LABA containing products are: Formoterol, Salmeterol, Indacaterol, Formoterol/Budesonide, Salmeterol/Fluticasone, Treatment including lon-acting anticholinergics: Tiotropium, Aclidinium.




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Percentage of Participants Prematurely Discontinuing Study Treatment Due to Any Reason [ Time Frame: Baseline to Week 12 (Main Period) ]
    The primary endpoint is the percentage of participants prematurely discontinuing study treatment for any reason during the Main Period from Visit 1 (V1) to Last Visit (Vend). Discontinuation is defined as permanently stopping randomized treatment; participants who resume randomized treatment after an interval will not be counted as having discontinued. The analysis used discontinuations occurring during the Main Period, irrespective of whether a participant subsequently entered into the Down-Titration Period.


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Percentage of Participants With Adverse Events of Interest [ Time Frame: Baseline to Week 12 (Main Period) ]
    Adverse events of interest to evaluate tolerability are defined as diarrhea, nausea, headache, decreased appetite, insomnia and abdominal pain.

  2. Change From Baseline (V0DT) in Pre-bronchodilator Forced Expiratory Volume in First Second (FEV1) to Final Visit of the Down-Titration Period [ Time Frame: Baseline (V0DT) [assessment at end of main period] and Final Visit of Down-Titration Period (Up to Day 56) ]
    FEV1 is the amount of air which can be forcibly exhaled from the lungs in the first second of a forced exhalation. Pulmonary function testing was performed using spirometry prior to taking study medication A positive change from Baseline indicates improvement.

  3. Percentage of Participants Prematurely Discontinuing Study Treatment Due to Any Reason During Down-Titration Period [ Time Frame: Baseline DT (Day 1 of Down-Titration Period) to Week 8 (Down-Titration Period) ]
  4. Change From Baseline in Pre-bronchodilator Forced Expiratory Volume in First Second (FEV1) During the Down-Titration Period [ Time Frame: Baseline DT (Day 1 of Down-Titration Period) to Days 14, 28 and 56 (Down-Titration Period) ]
    FEV1 is the amount of air which can be forcibly exhaled from the lungs in the first second of a forced exhalation. Pulmonary function testing was performed using spirometry prior to taking study medication. A positive change from Baseline indicates improvement.

  5. Change From Baseline in Pre-bronchodilator Forced Expiratory Volume in First Second (FEV1) During the Main Period [ Time Frame: Baseline (Day 1 of Main Period) to Days 15, 29, 57 and 84 (Main Period) ]
    FEV1 is the amount of air which can be forcibly exhaled from the lungs in the first second of a forced exhalation. Pulmonary function testing was performed using spirometry prior to taking study medication. A positive change from Baseline indicates improvement.

  6. Change From Baseline in Pre-bronchodilator Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) During the Main Period [ Time Frame: Baseline (Day 1 of Main Period) to Days 15, 29, 57 and 84 (Main Period) ]
    Forced vital capacity is the amount of air which can be forcibly exhaled from the lungs after taking the deepest breath possible. Pulmonary function testing was performed using spirometry prior to taking study medication. A positive change from Baseline indicates improvement.

  7. Change From Baseline in Pre-bronchodilator Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) During the Down-Titration Period [ Time Frame: Baseline DT (Day 1 of Down-Titration Period) to Days 14, 28 and 56 (Down-Titration Period) ]
    Forced vital capacity is the amount of air which can be forcibly exhaled from the lungs after taking the deepest breath possible. Pulmonary function testing was performed using spirometry prior to taking study medication. A positive change from Baseline indicates improvement.

  8. Change From Baseline in Treatment Satisfaction Scores During the Main Period [ Time Frame: Baseline (Day 1 of Main Period) to Days 15, 29, 57 and 84 (Main Period) ]
    Participants will be asked to assess their satisfaction with their COPD therapy at each visit. The participants will rate their treatment satisfaction on a 7-point scale where 0=very satisfied, 1=satisfied, 2=somewhat satisfied, 3=neither satisfied nor dissatisfied, 4=somewhat dissatisfied, 5=dissatisfied and 6=very dissatisfied. A negative change from Baseline indicates improvement.

  9. Change From Baseline in Treatment Satisfaction Scores During the Down-Titration Period [ Time Frame: Baseline DT (Day 1 of Down-Titration Period) to Days 14, 28 and 56 (Down-Titration Period) ]
    Participants will be asked to assess their satisfaction with their COPD therapy at each visit. The participants will rate their treatment satisfaction on a 7-point scale where 0=very satisfied, 1=satisfied, 2=somewhat satisfied, 3=neither satisfied nor dissatisfied, 4=somewhat dissatisfied, 5=dissatisfied and 6=very dissatisfied. A negative change from Baseline indicates improvement.

  10. Population PK Model Point Estimate for Absorption Rate Constant (Ka) of Roflumilast and Roflumilast N-oxide [ Time Frame: Main period: Pre-dose and 1,2,3,4,6 hours post-dose or pre-dose and 2 hours at weeks 2 or 8 ]
    PK model point estimates for Ka are calculated using all available PK data for all doses of roflumilast combined and are presented for roflumilast and metabolite roflumilast N-oxide. Results are reported for the subgroups defined according to the covariates (weight, age, smoking status and sex) included in the final model.

  11. Population PK Model Point Estimate for Apparent Oral Clearance (CL/F) of Roflumilast and Roflumilast N-oxide [ Time Frame: Main period: Pre-dose and 1,2,3,4,6 hours post-dose or pre-dose and 2 hours at weeks 2 or 8 ]
    PK model point estimates for CL/F are calculated using all available PK data for all doses of roflumilast combined and are presented for roflumilast and metabolite roflumilast N-oxide. Results are reported for the subgroups defined according to the covariates (weight, age, smoking status and sex) included in the final model.

  12. Population PK Model Point Estimate for Apparent Central Volume (Vc/F) of Roflumilast and Roflumilast N-oxide [ Time Frame: Main period: Pre-dose and 1,2,3,4,6 hours post-dose or pre-dose and 2 hours at weeks 2 or 8 ]
    PK model point estimates for Vc/F are calculated using all available PK data for all doses of roflumilast combined and are presented for roflumilast and metabolite roflumilast N-oxide. Results are reported for the subgroups defined according to the covariates (weight, age, smoking status and sex) included in the final model.

  13. Population PK Model Point Estimate for Apparent Peripheral Volume (Vp/F) of Roflumilast and Roflumilast N-oxide [ Time Frame: Main period: Pre-dose and 1,2,3,4,6 hours post-dose or pre-dose and 2 hours at weeks 2 or 8 ]
    PK model point estimates for Vp/F are calculated using all available PK data for all doses of roflumilast combined and are presented for roflumilast and metabolite roflumilast N-oxide. Results are reported for the subgroups defined according to the covariates (weight, age, smoking status and sex) included in the final model.

  14. Total PDE4 Inhibitory Activity (tPDE4i) [ Time Frame: Main period: Pre-dose and 1,2,3,4,6 hours post-dose or pre-dose and 2 hours post-dose at Days 15 and 57. Down-titration: Pre-dose and 1,2,3,4,6 hours post-dose at Days 1 and 14 and pre-dose at Days 28 and 56. ]
    tPDE4i was derived using in-vitro constants for protein binding and biochemical activity (IC50). tPDE4i is reported for a set of reference participants defined according to the covariates included in the final model.

  15. Summary Statistics of Predicted Total PDE4 Inhibitory Activity (tPDE4i) [ Time Frame: Main period: Pre-dose and 1,2,3,4,6 hours post-dose or pre-dose and 2 hours post-dose at Days 15 and 57. Down-titration: Pre-dose and 1,2,3,4,6 hours post-dose at Days 1 and 14 and pre-dose at Days 28 and 56. ]
    tPDE4i was derived using in-vitro constants for protein binding and biochemical activity (IC50). An Adverse Event (AE) is defined as any untoward medical occurrence in a clinical investigation participant administered a drug; it does not necessarily have to have a causal relationship with this treatment. A treatment-emergent adverse event (TEAE) is defined as an adverse event with an onset that occurs after receiving study drug. Adverse Events of Interest (AEI) for PK analyses included: headache, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, appetite disorders, sleep disorders, angioedema, psychiatric disorders (anxiety, nervousness), psychiatric disorders (depression,suicidal ideation,behaviour) and weight loss.

  16. Median Simulated Percentage of Participants With Adverse Events of Interest [ Time Frame: Main period: Pre-dose and 1,2,3,4,6 hours post-dose or pre-dose and 2 hours post-dose at Days 15 and 57. AEIs: 12 Weeks ]
    The PK model predicted the total PDE4 inhibitory activity and the median simulated percentage of participants with Adverse Events of Interest during 12 weeks of treatment based on 1000 participants simulated. Results are reported for the set of reference participants defined according to the covariates [weight, smoking status, sex, age and long acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA)] included in the final model and tPDE4i. Adverse Events of Interest (AEI) for PK analyses included: headache, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, appetite disorders, sleep disorders, angioedema, psychiatric disorders (anxiety, nervousness), psychiatric disorders (depression, suicidal ideation, behaviour) and weight loss.

  17. Median Simulated Absolute Change From Baseline in FEV1 at Weeks 4 and 12 [ Time Frame: Main period: Pre-dose and 1,2,3,4,6 hours post-dose or pre-dose and 2 hours post-dose at Days 15 and 57. FEV-1: Pre-dose and Weeks 4 and 12 ]
    The PK model predicted the total PDE4 inhibitory activity and the median simulated Change from Baseline (CFB) in FEV1 at Week 4 and the Change from Baseline in FEV1 at Week 12 during 12 weeks of treatment with roflumilast 500 μg OD based on 1000 participants simulated. Results are reported for the set of reference participants defined according to the covariates [weight, smoking status, sex, age, race, COPD severity, concomitant long acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) and Percent FEV1 reversibility] included in the final model and tPDE4i. FEV1 is the amount of air which can be forcibly exhaled from the lungs in the first second of a forced exhalation. Pulmonary function testing was performed using spirometry prior to taking study medication. A positive change from Baseline indicates improvement.



Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.


Ages Eligible for Study:   40 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  1. In the opinion of the investigator, the participant is capable of understanding and complying with protocol requirements.
  2. The participant or, when applicable, the participant's legally acceptable representative signs and dates a written, informed consent form and any required privacy authorization prior to the initiation of any study procedures.
  3. Has a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (according to Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) 2013) for at least 12 months prior to Screening (Visit V0) associated with chronic productive cough for 3 months in each of the 2 years prior to Screening (Visit V0, with other causes of productive cough excluded).
  4. Shows a post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) of ≤50% of predicted.
  5. Shows an FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio (post-bronchodilator) <70%.
  6. Has at least one documented COPD exacerbation within one year prior to Screening (Visit V0).
  7. Is on standard of care COPD maintenance treatment including Long Acting β2-Agonist (LABAs), long-acting anticholinergics, or any combination thereof taken on a constant daily dose within 12 weeks prior to Screening (Visit V0).
  8. Must be a former smoker (defined as smoking cessation at least one year ago) or current smoker both with a smoking history of at least 10 pack years.11
  9. Is male or female and aged 40 or older.
  10. A female participant of childbearing potential who is sexually active with a nonsterilized male partner agrees to use routinely adequate contraception from signing of informed consent throughout the duration of the study.

Exclusion Criteria:

Criteria affecting the read-out parameters of the study

  1. Has a COPD exacerbation ongoing at the Screening (Visit V0), or has a COPD exacerbation between V0 and V1.
  2. Has a lower respiratory tract infection not resolved 4 weeks prior to Screening (Visit V0).
  3. Has a diagnosis of asthma and/or other relevant lung disease (eg, history of primary bronchiectases, cystic fibrosis, bronchiolitis, lung resection, lung cancer, interstitial lung disease [eg, fibrosis, silicosis, sarcoidosis], or active tuberculosis).
  4. Has a known α1-antitrypsin deficiency.
  5. Has taken roflumilast within 6 months of Screening (Visit V0).

    Criteria within ethical considerations in terms of general health

  6. Has clinically relevant abnormal laboratory values suggesting an undiagnosed disease requiring further clinical evaluation (as assessed by the investigator).
  7. Has a history of severe psychiatric or neurological disorders.
  8. Has a history of depression associated with suicidal ideation or behavior.
  9. Has congestive heart failure severity grade IV according to New York Heart Association (NYHA) Functional Classification.
  10. Has hemodynamically significant cardiac arrhythmias or heart valve deformations.
  11. Has computed tomography (CT) or chest x-ray findings indicating an acute pulmonary disease other than COPD (eg, tuberculosis, severe bronchiectasis, tumors).
  12. Has severe immunological diseases (eg, known human immune deficiency virus (HIV) infection, multiple sclerosis, lupus erythematosus, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy).
  13. Has liver impairment Child-Pugh B or C and/or active viral hepatitis.
  14. Has severe acute infectious diseases (eg, tuberculosis, or acute hepatitis).
  15. Has a history of malignant disease (except basal cell carcinoma) within 5 years before Screening (Visit V0).
  16. Has a history of drug abuse (defined as any illicit drug use) or a history of alcohol abuse within one year before Screening (Visit V0).
  17. Has a history of hypersensitivity or allergies to roflumilast or rescue medication or ingredients thereof, or any other contraindication for the use thereof.
  18. If female, the participant is pregnant or lactating or intending to become pregnant before, during, or within 12 weeks after participating in this study; or intending to donate ova during such time period.
  19. Intends to donate blood, organs, or bone marrow during the course of the study.
  20. Has received any investigational compound within 30 days prior to Screening (Visit V0), is currently participating in another interventional clinical study, or has been previously enrolled in this study.
  21. Is suspected to be unable or unwilling to comply with study procedures (eg, language problems, psychological disorders, number and timing of visits at the center).
  22. Suffers from any concomitant disease that might interfere with study procedures or evaluations.
  23. Is required to take excluded medications.
  24. Is an immediate family member, study center employee, or is in a dependent relationship with a study site employee who is involved in conduct of this study (eg, spouse, parent, child, sibling), or may consent under duress.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT02165826


Locations
Slovakia
Bardejov, Slovakia
Spisska Nova Ves, Slovakia
Sponsors and Collaborators
AstraZeneca
Investigators
Study Director: AstraZeneca AstraZeneca AstraZeneca

Publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):
Responsible Party: AstraZeneca
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02165826     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: RO-2455-302-RD
U1111-1150-2477 ( Other Identifier: World Health Organization )
2013-001788-21 ( EudraCT Number )
First Posted: June 18, 2014    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: March 14, 2017
Last Update Posted: April 20, 2017
Last Verified: March 2017

Keywords provided by AstraZeneca:
Drug therapy

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Lung Diseases
Lung Diseases, Obstructive
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive
Respiratory Tract Diseases