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Evaluation of Energy Expenditure and Cardiovascular Health Effects From Tai Chi and Walking Exercise

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02163798
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : June 16, 2014
Last Update Posted : August 20, 2014
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Stanley Sai-Chuen Hui, Chinese University of Hong Kong

Brief Summary:
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) accounted for major mortality and morbidity rates in Hong Kong (HK) other than cancer. Increasing energy expenditure through regular exercise participation has been found to lower the risk of CVD such as hyperlipidemia and obesity. Healthcare professionals often prescribe lifestyle exercises for disease prevention, rehabilitation, and health maintenance purposes. Previous study revealed that Tai Chi and walking were widely practice by HK citizens. However, limited studies are found to compare the health benefits between Tai Chi and walking. Do Tai Chi and walking have equally effective in raising metabolic rate and reducing CVD risks? The difference in energy cost between a single bout of Tai Chi and walking has not been documented. Limited studies report the effects of Tai Chi in lowering the CVD risk. Since walking and Tai Chi are being heavily promoted in HK in recent years, there is an urgent need to document the evidence of these two common forms of exercise in terms of reducing CVD risks. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the energy costs as well as CV health benefits, in terms of aerobic fitness, body composition, blood pressure, and blood lipid profiles, from the walking and Tai Chi exercise in a sample of HK Chinese adults, and to compare the effects between these two exercises. The investigators hypothesized that Tai Chi and walking had similar effects on improving energy cost and reducing CVD risks.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Physical Activity Behavioral: 12-week instructor-led Tai Chi training program Behavioral: 12-week instructor-led brisk walking training program Not Applicable

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 374 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Prevention
Official Title: Evaluation of Energy Expenditure and Cardiovascular Health Effects From Tai Chi and Walking Exercise
Study Start Date : January 2005
Actual Primary Completion Date : August 2006
Actual Study Completion Date : August 2006

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine


Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Tai Chi Group
Participants in this group received a 12-week instructor-led Tai Chi training program.
Behavioral: 12-week instructor-led Tai Chi training program
A 12-week (45 min per day, 5 days per week) instructor-led Tai Chi training program was conducted in the Tai Chi group. Of the 5 days of exercise, 3 days were led by qualified instructors, and 2 other days for self-practice. Each session consisted of a 10-min standard warm-up, 30-min of Tai Chi exercise, and 5-min cool down stretching. The modified 32 Yang-style Tai Chi Chuan was used, because it could be learned within a relatively short time, and has been widely promoted in HK community. An exercise log was used to record the actual implementation of the training (instructor-led & self-practice).

Experimental: Walking Group
Participants in this group received a 12-week instructor-led brisk walking training program.
Behavioral: 12-week instructor-led brisk walking training program
A 12-week (45 min per day, 5 days per week) instructor-led brisk walking training program was conducted in the walking group. Of the 5 days of exercise, 3 days were led by qualified instructors, and 2 other days for self-practice. Each session consisted of a 10-min standard warm-up, 30-min of walking exercise, and 5-min cool down stretching. An exercise log was used to record the actual implementation of the training (instructor-led & self-practice).

No Intervention: Control Group
Participants in the control group did not receive intervention during the 12 weeks, and were told that they would be provided two sessions of free health and fitness evaluation with an interval of three months (12 weeks).



Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Changes of aerobic fitness after intervention [ Time Frame: Measures were done at two time points: baseline and 3 months ]
    The aerobic fitness, in terms of maximal oxygen intake (VO2max in ml/min/kg), was measured at baseline (pre-intervention) and 3 months (post-intervention), respectively. The pre-intervention VO2max minus the post-intervention VO2max was the "Changes of aerobic fitness after intervention"

  2. Changes of resting VO2 (ml/min/kg) after intervention [ Time Frame: Measures were done at two time points: baseline and 3 months ]
    Resting VO2 (ml/min/kg) was an indicator of resting energy expenditure (REE) in our study. It was measured at baseline (pre-intervention) and 3 months (post-intervention), respectively. The pre-intervention REE-VO2 minus the post-intervention REE-VO2 was the "Changes of resting VO2 after intervention"

  3. Changes of body mass index (BMI) after intervention [ Time Frame: Measures were done at two time points: baseline and 3 months ]
    BMI was an indicator of body composition in our study. It was measured at baseline (pre-intervention) and 3 months (post-intervention), respectively. The pre-intervention BMI minus the post-intervention BMI was the "Changes of BMI after intervention"

  4. Changes of waist circumference (WC) after intervention [ Time Frame: Measures were done at two time points: baseline and 3 months ]
    WC was an indicator of body composition in our study. It was measured at baseline (pre-intervention) and 3 months (post-intervention), respectively. The pre-intervention WC minus the post-intervention WC was the "Changes of WC after intervention"


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Changes of resting heart rate (HR in beats/min) after intervention [ Time Frame: Measures were done at two time points: baseline and 3 months ]
    Resting heart rate (HR in beats/min) was an indicator of resting energy expenditure (REE) in our study. It was measured at baseline (pre-intervention) and 3 months (post-intervention), respectively. The pre-intervention REE-HR minus the post-intervention REE-HR was the "Changes of resting HR after intervention"

  2. Changes of resting kilocalorie expenditure (KCal in KCal/min) after intervention [ Time Frame: Measures were done at two time points: baseline and 3 months ]
    Resting KCal (KCal/min) was an indicator of resting energy expenditure (REE) in our study. It was measured at baseline (pre-intervention) and 3 months (post-intervention), respectively. The pre-intervention REE-KCal minus the post-intervention REE-KCal was the "Changes of resting Kilocalorie expenditure after intervention"

  3. Changes of hip circumference (HC) after intervention [ Time Frame: Measures were done at two time points: baseline and 3 months ]
    HC was an indicator of body composition in our study. It was measured at baseline (pre-intervention) and 3 months (post-intervention), respectively. The pre-intervention HC minus the post-intervention HC was the "Changes of HC after intervention"

  4. Changes of waist hip ratio (WHR) after intervention [ Time Frame: Measures were done at two time points: baseline and 3 months ]
    WHR was an indicator of body composition in our study. It was measured at baseline (pre-intervention) and 3 months (post-intervention), respectively. The pre-intervention WHR minus the post-intervention WHR was the "Changes of WHR after intervention"

  5. Changes of body fat percentage after intervention [ Time Frame: Measures were done at two time points: baseline and 3 months ]
    Body fat percentage was an indicator of body composition in our study. It was measured at baseline (pre-intervention) and 3 months (post-intervention), respectively. The post-intervention body fat percentage minus the pre-intervention body fat percentage was the "Changes of body fat percentage after intervention"

  6. Changes of skinfold thickness after intervention [ Time Frame: Measures were done at two time points: baseline and 3 months ]
    Skinfold thickness was an indicator of body composition in our study. The sum of skinfold thickness was measured at baseline (pre-intervention) and 3 months (post-intervention), respectively. The post-intervention body fat percentage minus the pre-intervention body fat percentage was the "Changes of skinfold thickness after intervention"

  7. Changes of SF-12 score after intervention [ Time Frame: Measures were done at two time points: baseline and 3 months ]
    SF-12 score was an indicator of self-perceived health in our study. It was measured at baseline (pre-intervention) and 3 months (post-intervention), respectively. The post-intervention SF-12 score minus the pre-intervention SF-12 score was the "Changes of SF-12 score after intervention"

  8. Changes of blood pressure (BP) after intervention [ Time Frame: Measures were done at two time points: baseline and 3 months ]
    Blood pressure was an indicator of cardiovascular health in our study. It was measured at baseline (pre-intervention) and 3 months (post-intervention), respectively. The post-intervention BP minus the pre-intervention BP was the "Changes of BP after intervention"

  9. Changes of fasting blood glucose (mmol/L) after intervention [ Time Frame: Measures were done at two time points: baseline and 3 months ]
    Fasting blood glucose (mmol/L) was an indicator of cardiovascular health in our study. It was measured at baseline (pre-intervention) and 3 months (post-intervention), respectively. The post-intervention fasting blood glucose minus the pre-intervention fasting blood glucose was the "Changes of fasting blood glucose after intervention"

  10. Changes of total cholesterol (mmol/L) after intervention [ Time Frame: Measures were done at two time points: baseline and 3 months ]
    Total cholesterol (mmol/L) was an indicator of cardiovascular health in our study. It was measured at baseline (pre-intervention) and 3 months (post-intervention), respectively. The post-intervention total cholesterol minus the pre-intervention total cholesterol was the "Changes of total cholesterol after intervention"

  11. Changes of high-density lipoprotein (HDL in mmol/L) after intervention [ Time Frame: Measures were done at two time points: baseline and 3 months ]
    High-density lipoprotein (HDL in mmol/L) was an indicator of cardiovascular health in our study. It was measured at baseline (pre-intervention) and 3 months (post-intervention), respectively. The post-intervention HDL minus the pre-intervention HDL was the "Changes of HDL after intervention"

  12. Changes of Low-density lipoprotein (LDL in mmol/L) after intervention [ Time Frame: Measures were done at two time points: baseline and 3 months ]
    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL in mmol/L) was an indicator of cardiovascular health in our study. It was measured at baseline (pre-intervention) and 3 months (post-intervention), respectively. The post-intervention LDL minus the pre-intervention LDL was the "Changes of LDL after intervention"

  13. Changes of triglycerides (mmol/L) after intervention [ Time Frame: Measures were done at two time points: baseline and 3 months ]
    Triglycerides (mmol/L) was an indicator of cardiovascular health in our study. It was measured at baseline (pre-intervention) and 3 months (post-intervention), respectively. The post-intervention triglycerides minus the pre-intervention triglycerides was the "Changes of triglycerides after intervention"

  14. Changes of dietary habits after intervention [ Time Frame: Measures were done at two time points: baseline and 3 months ]
    Dietary habits was measured by food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). It was measured at baseline (pre-intervention) and 3 months (post-intervention), respectively. The differences of two measurements were analyzed.

  15. Changes of handgrip (kg) after intervention [ Time Frame: Measures were done at two time points: baseline and 3 months ]
    Handgrip (kg) was an indicator of physical fitness in our study. It was measured at baseline (pre-intervention) and 3 months (post-intervention), respectively. The post-intervention handgrip minus the pre-intervention handgrip was the "Changes of handgrip after intervention"

  16. Changes of arm lift (kg) after intervention [ Time Frame: Measures were done at two time points: baseline and 3 months ]
    Arm lift (kg) was an indicator of physical fitness in our study. It was measured at baseline (pre-intervention) and 3 months (post-intervention), respectively. The post-intervention arm lift minus the pre-intervention arm lift was the "Changes of arm lift after intervention"

  17. Changes of shoulder lift (kg) after intervention [ Time Frame: Measures were done at two time points: baseline and 3 months ]
    Shoulder lift (kg) was an indicator of physical fitness in our study. It was measured at baseline (pre-intervention) and 3 months (post-intervention), respectively. The post-intervention shoulder lift minus the pre-intervention shoulder lift was the "Changes of shoulder lift after intervention"

  18. Changes of leg lift (kg) after intervention [ Time Frame: Measures were done at two time points: baseline and 3 months ]
    Leg lift (kg) was an indicator of physical fitness in our study. It was measured at baseline (pre-intervention) and 3 months (post-intervention), respectively. The post-intervention leg lift minus the pre-intervention leg lift was the "Changes of leg lift after intervention"

  19. Changes of back lift (kg) after intervention [ Time Frame: Measures were done at two time points: baseline and 3 months ]
    Back lift (kg) was an indicator of physical fitness in our study. It was measured at baseline (pre-intervention) and 3 months (post-intervention), respectively. The post-intervention back lift minus the pre-intervention back lift was the "Changes of back lift after intervention"

  20. Changes of balance test (sec) after intervention [ Time Frame: Measures were done at two time points: baseline and 3 months ]
    Balance test (sec) was an indicator of physical fitness in our study. It was measured at baseline (pre-intervention) and 3 months (post-intervention), respectively. The post-intervention balance test minus the pre-intervention balance test was the "Changes of balance test (sec) after intervention"

  21. Changes of curl-up test (reps) after intervention [ Time Frame: Measures were done at two time points: baseline and 3 months ]
    Curl-up test (reps) was an indicator of physical fitness in our study. It was measured at baseline (pre-intervention) and 3 months (post-intervention), respectively. The post-intervention curl-up test (reps) minus the pre-intervention curl-up test (reps) was the "Changes of curl-up test (reps) after intervention"

  22. Changes of sit-and-reach (leg, cm) after intervention [ Time Frame: Measures were done at two time points: baseline and 3 months ]
    Sit-and-reach (leg, cm) was an indicator of physical fitness in our study. It was measured at baseline (pre-intervention) and 3 months (post-intervention), respectively. The post-intervention sit-and-reach (leg, cm) minus the pre-intervention sit-and-reach (leg, cm) was the "Changes of sit-and-reach (leg, cm) after intervention"

  23. Six-month maintenance [ Time Frame: 6-month after the completion of the training sessions ]
    To evaluate the adherence of the Tai Chi and walking exercise training, a questionnaire was administered at 6-month upon the completion of the training sessions to evaluate the maintenance situation of the participants.



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Ages Eligible for Study:   36 Years to 60 Years   (Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • residents of large housing estates in the Shatin district
  • physical inactivity
  • no exercise habits

Exclusion Criteria:

  • cardiovascular diseases
  • pulmonary diseases
  • neurological disorder
  • musculoskeletal disorder

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT02163798


Locations
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Hong Kong
Chinese University of Hong Kong
Hong Kong, Hong Kong
Sponsors and Collaborators
Chinese University of Hong Kong
Investigators
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Principal Investigator: Stanley Sai-Chuen Hui, EdD Chinese University of Hong Kong
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Responsible Party: Stanley Sai-Chuen Hui, Professor, Chinese University of Hong Kong
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02163798    
Other Study ID Numbers: HHSRF 02030511
First Posted: June 16, 2014    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: August 20, 2014
Last Verified: August 2014
Keywords provided by Stanley Sai-Chuen Hui, Chinese University of Hong Kong:
Tai Chi
Walking
Physical activity
Randomized controlled trial
Chinese population
Exercise
Body composition
Cardiovascular risk factor
Energy expenditure
Fitness
SF-12