Anti-PD-1 Monoclonal Antibody in Advanced, Trastuzumab-resistant, HER2-positive Breast Cancer (PANACEA)
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|ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02129556|
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : May 2, 2014
Results First Posted : February 15, 2019
Last Update Posted : February 15, 2019
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|Condition or disease||Intervention/treatment||Phase|
|Metastatic Breast Cancer||Drug: MK-3475||Phase 1 Phase 2|
A significant amount of preclinical and correlative clinical data suggest that HER2-positive breast cancer could be amenable to immune¬therapeutic approaches. The presence of HER2-overexpression in breast cancers is associated with higher levels of proliferation, high histologic grade and higher levels of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) compared with HER2-negative tumors. The investigators therefore hypothesize that for HER2-positive tumors, avoidance of destruction by the host immune system must be an important mechanism contributing to tumor growth and progression.
The term "immune evasion" refers to the ability of the tumor to suppress and change host anti-tumor immune reactions. The programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) pathway represents a major immune control switch which may be engaged by tumor cells to overcome active T-cell immune surveillance. The ligands for PD-1 (PD-L1 and PD-L2) are constitutively expressed or can be induced in various tumors. High expression of PD-L1 on tumor cells (and to a lesser extent of PD-L2) has been found to correlate with poor prognosis and survival in various other solid tumor types. Furthermore, PD-1 has been suggested to regulate tumor-specific T-cell expansion in patients with malignant melanoma. These observations suggest that the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway plays a critical role in the tumor immune evasion and could be considered an attractive target for therapeutic intervention in several solid organ types.
MK-3475 (previously known as SCH 900475) is a potent and highly-selective humanized mAb of the IgG4/kappa isotype designed to directly block the interaction between PD-1 and its ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2. MK-3475 strongly enhances T lymphocyte immune responses in cultured blood cells from healthy human donors, cancer patients, and primatesMK-3475 also modulates the level of interleukin-2 (IL-2), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), interferon gamma (IFNγ), and other cytokines.
The investigators therefore propose to evaluate if the addition of an immunotherapy can reverse trastuzumab resistance and improve clinical outcomes in HER2-positive disease. In this study the investigators will determine if a monoclonal antibody targeted against PD-1, a T cell negative regulator, can reverse trastuzumab resistance in patients previously progressing on trastuzumab.
|Study Type :||Interventional (Clinical Trial)|
|Actual Enrollment :||58 participants|
|Intervention Model:||Single Group Assignment|
|Masking:||None (Open Label)|
|Official Title:||A Phase Ib/II Trial Evaluating the Efficacy of MK-3475 and Trastuzumab in Patients With Trastuzumab-resistant, HER2-positive Metastatic Breast Cancers|
|Study Start Date :||December 2014|
|Actual Primary Completion Date :||August 4, 2017|
|Actual Study Completion Date :||August 4, 2017|
Experimental: MK-3475 with trastuzumab (single arm)
Phase Ib: MK-3475 at dose of 2 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg (i.v.), or a fall-back dose of 1 mg/kg, together with trastuzumab 6mg/kg by (i.v.) once every 3 weeks.
Phase II: MK-3475 at a flat dose of 200mg (i.v.) together with trastuzumab 6mg/kg (i.v.) once every 3 weeks until progression, lack of tolerability, or 24 months of treatment.
A dose of 8mg/kg trastuzumab will be used in cycle 1 if prior treatment with trastuzumab was stopped more than 3 months before.
The phase Ib trial will determine the recommended dose from three MK-3475 dose levels: 1mg/kg, 2 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg.
Other Name: Pembrolizumab
- Dose-Limiting Toxicity (DLT) of MK-3475 in Combination With Trastuzumab [ Time Frame: Within the first 21 days ]
Determination of dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) which is defined as an adverse event or abnormal laboratory value assessed as suspected to be trial treatment related (possible, probable or definite) and unrelated to disease or disease progression. Toxicities and lab values will be graded according to the NCI CTCAE (v4.0).
- Any grade-3 or greater non-hematological adverse event lasting at least one week;
- Any grade-4 hematological toxicity; or,
- Any adverse event resulting in a delay starting cycle 2 of more than 14 days.
- Objective Response Rate (ORR) [ Time Frame: Clinical and radiological tumor assessment will be performed by CT scan or MRI at baseline, at weeks 12, 18 and 24, then every 12 weeks until progression, or 24 weeks after stop of treatment if before progression. ]Confirmed CR or PR as best overall response. At the time of each restaging, patients will be classified as achieving complete response (CR), partial response (PR), stable disease (SD), progressive disease (PD), or non-evaluable for response according to RECIST (Version 1.1) criteria.
- Duration of Response (DoR) [ Time Frame: From date of first documentation of objective response until first documentation of progressive disease, up to 24 weeks after stop of treatment (=30 months) ]Duration of response (DoR) is defined among patients with objective response (confirmed CR or PR as best overall response) as the interval between dates of first documentation of objective response and first documentation of progressive disease. In the absence of documented progressive disease, follow-up will be censored at date of last disease assessment.
- Time to Progression (TTP) [ Time Frame: From the first trial treatment until first documentation of progressive disease up to 24 weeks after stop of treatment (=30 months) ]Time to progression (TTP) defined as the interval between the dates of the start of trial treatment and first documentation of progressive disease. In the absence of documented progressive disease, follow-up will be censored at date of last disease assessment
- Disease Control Rate (DCR) [ Time Frame: From the start of trial treatment until confirmed CR, PR, or SD lasting for 24 weeks or longer ]The proportion of patients with best confirmed RECIST response of CR, PR, or duration of SD of at least 24 weeks (measured from first dose of trial treatment).
- Progression-Free Survival (PFS) [ Time Frame: From the date of first treatment dose until documented disease progression or death from any cause. whichever occur first, assessed up to 30 months ]The interval between the dates of the first dose of trial treatment until first documentation of disease progression or death, whichever occurs first. Patients with new non-breast cancer malignancy must continue to be followed for progression of the original breast cancer. For patients without progression, follow-up is censored at the date of last disease assessment without progression, unless death occurs within 12 weeks following the date last known progression-free, in which case the death will be counted as a PFS event.
- Overall Survival (OS) at 12 Months [ Time Frame: Time from start of trial treatment to death from any cause, assessed up to 30 months ]OS is defined as the time from the first dose of trial treatment to death from any cause. For patients who are lost to follow-up or who have no documentation of death at the time of final analysis, follow-up is censored at the date of last assessment of vital status. OS at 12 months by Kaplan-Meier estimates.
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|Ages Eligible for Study:||18 Years and older (Adult, Older Adult)|
|Sexes Eligible for Study:||Female|
|Accepts Healthy Volunteers:||No|
Inclusion criteria for screening:
- Female gender
- Age ≥ 18 years
- Histologically confirmed breast adenocarcinoma that is unresectable loco-regional, or metastatic.
- Locally confirmed HER2-positivity (immunohistochemistry score 3+) or ERBB2-amplification (Ratio ERBB2/centromeres ≥2.0 or mean gene copy number ≥ 6) of primary tumor or of biopsy from metastatic or unresectable loco-regional lesion.
Trastuzumab resistant disease, defined by:
- progression of disease while on-treatment with trastuzumab
- recurrence while on adjuvant trastuzumab or within 12 months of completing adjuvant trastuzumab
- Any number of prior lines of anti-HER2 therapy acceptable. Patients for whom the treatment with the current first-line combination of trastuzumab, pertuzumab and taxanes is not an option can be considered for enrollment
- If a patient has received a subsequent anti-HER2 therapy, she must also have progressed on the subsequent therapy.
- Presence of at least one measurable lesion (RECIST 1.1)
- LVEF ≥50%
- Patient agrees to submit an FFPE tumor biopsy for central confirmation of HER2 positivity and central assessment of PD-L1 status.
- Written Informed Consent (IC) for screening procedures and trial participation must be signed and dated by the patient and the Investigator prior to screening.
- Written consent to biological material submission, indicating the patient has been informed of and agrees to tissue and blood material use, transfer and handling, must be signed and dated by the patient and the investigator prior to any procedures specific for this trial, including consent to translational research on FFPE and fresh frozen tumor biopsies in case the patient is enrolled into the trial.
- The patient has been informed of and agrees to data transfer and handling, in accordance with national data protection guidelines.
- Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) Performance Status 0-1
- Life expectancy >3 months.
- Absolute neutrophil count ≥ 1.5 × 109/L,
- Platelet count ≥ 100 × 109/L,
- Hemoglobin ≥ 9 g/dL
- Serum total bilirubin ≤ 1.5 × upper limit of normal (ULN). In the case of known Gilbert's syndrome, a higher serum total bilirubin (< 2 × ULN) is allowed.
- AST and ALT ≤ 2.5 × ULN; if the patient has liver metastases, ALT and AST must be ≤ 5 × ULN.
- Creatinine ≤ 1.5 ×ULN or creatinine clearance > 60 ml/min
- Proteinuria <1 g/day
- International Normalized Ratio (INR) or Prothrombin Time (PT) ≤1.5 × ULN unless patient is receiving anticoagulant therapy as long as PT or PTT (partial thromboplastin time) is within therapeutic range of intended use of anticoagulant.
Inclusion criteria for enrollment:
All inclusion criteria for screening, plus:
Central lab confirmation on a metastatic biopsy (or biopsy from unresectable loco-regional disease) of:
- HER2-positivity (immunohistochemistry score 3+) or ERBB2- amplification (Ratio ERBB2/centromeres ≥2.0 or mean gene copy number ≥ 6),
- Presence of PD-L1 expression assessed by IHC (during the phase II portion of the trial a parallel, secondary cohort of 15 patients with PD-L1 negative disease will be enrolled)
Patient agrees to submit tumor tissue for translational research:
- tissue biopsy from unresectable loco-regional or metastatic disease obtained ≤1 year prior to enrollment or new tissue material from a recently obtained surgical or diagnostic biopsy. For patients who have presented with stage 4 disease de novo, a biopsy taken from the presumed primary breast lesion is acceptable (provided this was taken ≤1 year prior to enrollment).
- if available: FFPE tumor block from primary surgery or diagnostic biopsy.
- if available: pre-treatment fresh frozen tumor biopsy.
- if feasible: FFPE tumor block from post-treatment biopsy will be taken at time of disease progression or end of all treatment if ended prior to progression. This re-biopsy is strongly advised.
- if feasible: fresh frozen tumor biopsy from post-treatment biopsy will be taken at time of disease progression or end of all treatment if ended prior to progression.
- Patient agrees to submit baseline (pre-treatment) blood and serial plasma for translational research
- For patient of childbearing potential, negative serum pregnancy test. Pregnancy test has to be repeated within 72h before treatment start.
- All anti-cancer treatment including endocrine therapy, with the exception of trastuzumab, must stop 3 weeks prior to first dose of trial treatment.
Exclusion criteria for screening:
- Prior therapy with other anti-PD-1, anti- PD-L1, L2 or anti-CTLA4 therapy.
- No FFPE material to centrally assess HER2-positivity and PD-L1 expression.
- Known Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) (HIV 1/2 antibodies), or positive for Hepatitis B (HBsAg reactive) or Hepatitis C (HCV RNA [qualitative]).
- Interstitial lung disease
- History of or active pneumonitis requiring treatment with steroids
- Active central nervous system metastases, as indicated by clinical symptoms, cerebral edema, and/or progressive growth (patients with history of CNS metastases or spinal cord compression are eligible if they are clinically and radiologically stable for at least 4 weeks before first dose of investigational product and have not required high-dose steroid treatment in the last 4 weeks).
- Leptomeningeal disease
- History of clinically significant or uncontrolled cardiac disease, including congestive heart failure (New York Heart Association functional classification ≥3), angina, myocardial infarction or ventricular arrhythmia.
- Previous severe hypersensitivity reaction to treatment with another monoclonal antibody.
- Active infection requiring systemic therapy.
- Chronic systemic therapy with immunosuppressive agents including cortico¬steroids.
- Concurrent disease or condition that would make the patient inappropriate for trial participation or any serious medical disorder that would interfere with the patient's safety.
- Known history of uncontrolled hypertension (≥ 180/110), unstable diabetes mellitus, dyspnea at rest, or chronic therapy with oxygen.
- Dementia, altered mental status, or any psychiatric condition that would prevent the understanding or rendering of Informed Consent.
- Treatment with an investigational agent in the 4 weeks before enrollment.
- Active autoimmune disease or a documented history of autoimmune disease, or a syndrome that requires systemic steroids or immunosuppressive agents. Patients with vitiligo or resolved childhood asthma/atopy would be an exception to this rule. Patients that require intermittent use of bronchodilators or local steroid injections would not be excluded from the trial. Patients with hypothyroidism stable on hormone replacement or Sjögren's syndrome will not be excluded from the trial.
- Chemotherapy, radioactive therapy, and/or biological cancer therapy within 3 weeks prior to the first trial dose and has not recovered to CTCAE v.4 grade 1 or better from adverse events.
- Pregnant or lactating women; lactation has to stop before enrollment.
- The patient of childbearing potential who is unwilling to use highly effective contraception during treatment and up to 7 months after stop of trial treatment. Acceptable methods are intrauterine devices (without hormones), bilateral tubal occlusion, vasectomized partner or total abstinence. Oral, injectable, or implant hormonal contraceptives are not allowed.
- Unresolved or unstable, serious adverse events from prior administration of another investigational drug.
- Active or uncontrolled infection CTCAE v.4 grade 2 or higher.
- Live vaccines within 30 days prior to the first dose of trial therapy and during trial treatment.
Exclusion criteria for enrollment:
- All exclusion criteria for screening apply for enrollment as well. Excluded are especially patients who have received any of the treatments below:
- Live vaccines within 30 days prior to the first dose of trial therapy and during trial treatment.
- History of CNS metastases or spinal cord compression if they have not been clinically stable for at least 4 weeks before first dose of investigational product and require high-dose steroid treatment.
- Treatment with an investigational agent in the 4 weeks before enrollment.
- Patient has not recovered to CTCAE v.4 grade 1 or better from adverse events of prior therapy, except alopecia grade 2.
- Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) (HIV 1/2 antibodies), or positive for Hepatitis B or Hepatitis C.
To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT02129556
|Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre|
|East Melbourne, Australia|
|Medical University of Vienna|
|Vienna, Austria, 1090|
|Jules Bordet Institute|
|Brussels, Belgium, 1000|
|CHU Sart Tilman|
|Liège, Belgium, 4000|
|Institut de Cacérologie de l'OUEST|
|Centre Leon Berard|
|Lyon, France, 69008|
|Institut Gustave Roussy|
|Villejuif, France, 94805|
|Istituto Europeo di Oncologia|
|Milan, Italy, 435|
|Azienda USL4 Prato|
|Prato, Italy, 59100|
|Study Chair:||Sherene Loi, MD||Department of Medical Oncology,Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre,East Melbourne, Victoria, Australia|
|Study Chair:||Fabrice André, Prof.||Department of Medical Oncology Institut Gustave Roussy,Villejuif,France|
Documents provided by ETOP IBCSG Partners Foundation:
Publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):
|Responsible Party:||ETOP IBCSG Partners Foundation|
|Other Study ID Numbers:||
IBCSG 45-13 / BIG 4-13
2013-004770-10 ( EudraCT Number )
|First Posted:||May 2, 2014 Key Record Dates|
|Results First Posted:||February 15, 2019|
|Last Update Posted:||February 15, 2019|
|Last Verified:||September 2018|
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