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A Comparison Trial Between PCA and Epidural Analgesia for Pectus Excavatum Repair

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02056301
Recruitment Status : Terminated (New method of pain control pushed by surgeons.)
First Posted : February 5, 2014
Results First Posted : June 11, 2020
Last Update Posted : June 11, 2020
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Chris Glover, Baylor College of Medicine

Brief Summary:
The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of epidural and IV analgesia in controlling pain in patients undergoing Nuss repair of pectus excavatum. The primary end point will be the mean pain score during postoperative days 0-4.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Pectus Excavatum Drug: Hydromorphone Drug: Morphine Phase 4

Detailed Description:
Pectus excavatum is a cartilaginous deformity that is the most common congenital anterior chest wall defect in children [1]. Children with this disease process often complain of dyspnea, decreased exercise tolerance, and shortness of breath implying a restrictive pulmonary deficit [2]. Besides the reported physical limitations, patients can also exhibit manifestations of psychological disturbances (poor body image and depression). Surgical repair has been correlated with enhanced quality of life and improvement in body image[3] with recent studies showing improved pulmonary function and cardiac output [4, 5]. Surgery initially introduced by Sauerbruch involved rib cartilage resection and sternal osteotomy. This open procedure was further modified and became [6] known as the Ravitch procedure. This was the mainstay for repair for over 40 years until the introduction of minimally invasive surgery without rib resection by Nuss and colleagues in 1987 [7]. The Nuss repair involves placing an intrathoracic brace through small lateral chest wall incisions aided by thoracoscopy. Similar to bracing the teeth, the Nuss procedure avoids osteotomy or rib cartilage resection [8]. The Nuss procedure is the most common minimally invasive procedure in use today to correct this condition and is the current standard of surgical practice. Complications from Nuss repair can range anywhere from 7% to 25% [9] and can occur for as long as the bar is in place. Pain control remains a major issue in the perioperative period as patients may require weeks to months of oral narcotics before becoming pain-free after correction of the pectus. A prospective multicenter study reported peak pain scores of 8 on a 0-10 scale in the postoperative period and a mean score of 3 at discharge [4]. Postoperative pain after pectus repair has been managed with IV opioids administered by patient controlled analgesia (PCA) devices and by thoracic epidural infusions of combinations of local anesthetics and opioids. It is unclear from published data which method is superior and different tertiary care centers in the USA have a preference for different methods.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 62 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Single (Participant)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Comparison Trial Between Patient Controlled Intravenous Analgesia (PCA) and Epidural Analgesia for Pectus Excavatum Repair
Study Start Date : August 2012
Actual Primary Completion Date : April 10, 2019
Actual Study Completion Date : October 2019

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine


Arm Intervention/treatment
Active Comparator: Patient Controlled Analgesia
One group will have a patient controlled device connected to an intravenous patient controlled analgesia (IV PCA). This device runs a basal infusion of pain medicine (morphine) intravenously with additional allowable patient controlled doses every 10 minutes.
Drug: Morphine
This device runs a basal infusion of pain medicine (morphine) intravenously with additional allowable patient controlled doses every 10 minutes

Active Comparator: epidural Catheter
The other group will have an epidural catheter inserted under sterile conditions in the thoracic epidural space after anesthesia has been induced. This will be connected to a patient controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) device for postoperative pain control that works in a similar manner except the medication (a combination of local anesthetics and hydromorphone) will be administered in the thoracic epidural space.
Drug: Hydromorphone
In keeping with standard practice at the TCH, the position of the thoracic epidural catheter tip will be confirmed by real time fluoroscopy and a single injection of 1 ml of omnipaque 180 mg/mL contrast. In keeping with current practice, a bolus of 0.2% ropivacaine 0.3 ml per kg (maximum dose 20 ml) will be administered in the epidural space to the patients in the TEA group at least 10 minutes prior to surgical incision.




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Verbal Pain Scale Scores During Postoperative Days 0-4 [ Time Frame: Postoperative days 0-4 ]
    The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of epidural and IV analgesia in controlling pain in patients undergoing Nuss repair of pectus excavatum. The primary end point will be the mean pain scores during postoperative days (POD) 0-4. Pain was measured using the verbal pain scale. The scale ranges from 0-10. A score of 0 means the patient is in no pain.


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Total Morphine Equivalent Consumption During Postoperative Days 0-4 [ Time Frame: Postoperative days 0-4 ]
    This outcome measures total amount of morphine administered in mg/kg by post-operative day 0-4. This captures all standard of care opioids delivered via their assigned cohort route (Epidural vs. IV PCA). Opioids other than morphine that were administered for pain were multiplied by their equianalgesic conversion factor to calculate the IV Morphine equivalent.

  2. Rescue Morphine Equivalent Administration During Postoperative Days 0-4 [ Time Frame: Postoperative days 0-4 ]
    This outcome measures the amount of rescue morphine administered due to breakthrough pain in mg/kg by post-operative day 0-4. This captures additional opioids that were administered by a nurse through an IV. Opioids other than morphine that were administered for pain were multiplied by their equianalgesic conversion factor to calculate the IV Morphine equivalent.



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Ages Eligible for Study:   8 Years to 18 Years   (Child, Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Patients age 8- 18 years 2) Patients undergoing minimally invasive pectus excavatum repair via Nuss procedure 3) American Society of Anesthesiology Status I-III

Exclusion Criteria:

  • 1) Refusal of epidural catheter 2) Pregnancy 3) Bleeding History 4) Inability to understand how to use the PCA device 5) Medication interfering with blood coagulation 6) Patients allergic to local anesthetics 7) Patient refusal to participate in study 8) Developmental delay

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT02056301


Locations
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United States, Texas
Texas Children't Hospital
Houston, Texas, United States, 77030
Sponsors and Collaborators
Baylor College of Medicine
Investigators
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Principal Investigator: Chris Glover, MD Baylor College of Medicine
  Study Documents (Full-Text)

Documents provided by Chris Glover, Baylor College of Medicine:
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Responsible Party: Chris Glover, Pediatric Anesthesiologist, Baylor College of Medicine
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02056301    
Other Study ID Numbers: H31096
First Posted: February 5, 2014    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: June 11, 2020
Last Update Posted: June 11, 2020
Last Verified: June 2020
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: No
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Funnel Chest
Bone Diseases, Developmental
Bone Diseases
Musculoskeletal Diseases
Musculoskeletal Abnormalities
Congenital Abnormalities
Morphine
Hydromorphone
Analgesics, Opioid
Narcotics
Central Nervous System Depressants
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Analgesics
Sensory System Agents
Peripheral Nervous System Agents