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Atrial Fibrillation Detected by Continuous ECG Monitoring (LOOP)

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
 
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02036450
Recruitment Status : Active, not recruiting
First Posted : January 15, 2014
Last Update Posted : January 18, 2020
Sponsor:
Collaborators:
Bispebjerg Hospital
Zealand University Hospital
Odense University Hospital
University of Southern Denmark
Aalborg University
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Jesper Hastrup Svendsen, Rigshospitalet, Denmark

Brief Summary:
The LOOP study aims to determine whether screening for atrial fibrillation (AF) with implantable loop recorder and initiation of oral anticoagulation if AF is detected will reduce the risk of stroke and systemic arterial embolism in patients with risk factors for stroke.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Atrial Fibrillation Stroke Hypertension Diabetes Device: Implantable loop recorder (Medtronic Reveal LINQ(TM)) Not Applicable

Detailed Description:

Background:

Ischemic stroke is an increasing health problem world-wide (Heidenreich PA, et al. Circulation 2011; PMID 21262990). At least 20% of ischemic strokes are attributable to atrial fibrillation (AF) (Marini C, et al. Stroke J Cereb Circ 2005; PMID 15879330). Another 30% are so-called cryptogenic, possibly related to undiagnosed AF (Brachmann J, et al. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 2015; PMID 26763225). In approximately 30% of a general population of pacemaker or cardioverter defibrillator patients, previously unknown AF will be detected during the first 2-3 years after implantation (Healey JS, et al. N Engl J Med 2012; PMID 22236222; ASSERT). Although the majority of these AF episodes are short-lasting and asymptomatic, the ASSERT study found that such AF is associated with risk of stroke. Since this was published, screening for AF has received intensified attention by researchers and the industry, although available evidence does not yet support systematic mass screening.

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Aims:

The LOOP study will determine whether long-term continuous screening and initiation of oral anticoagulation (OAC) for AF episodes lasting ≥6 minutes will reduce the risk of stroke in patients with stroke risk factors.

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Methods:

Patients from the general population will receive a letter of invitation from one of four study centers located in 3 of Denmark's 5 administrative regions.

Eligible study participants must be ≥70 years old and have ≥1 of the following stroke risk factors; hypertension, diabetes, heart failure or previous stroke, while any history of AF or existing cardiac implantable electronic device are exclusion criteria.

A total of 6000 participants will be randomized 3:1 to control (n=4500) or to receive an implantable loop recorder with continuous remote monitoring (n=1500) and initiation of OAC if AF is detected.

The primary endpoint is time to first stroke or systemic arterial embolism. The trial is event-driven and planned to continue until 279 adjudicated primary events have occurred.

Sub-studies include AF characterization, health economic analyses, quality-of-life assessments, cognitive function assessments, and studies of risk markers from 12-lead ECG, genetics, cardiac and brain imaging, biochemistry, and more.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 6000 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Atrial Fibrillation Detected by Continuous ECG Monitoring Using Implantable Loop Recorder to Prevent Stroke in High-risk Individuals.
Study Start Date : January 2014
Estimated Primary Completion Date : December 2020
Estimated Study Completion Date : December 2020

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine


Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: ILR group
Receive implantable loop recorder (ILR, Medtronic Reveal LINQ(TM)) with continuous monitoring, and will be followed by daily automated remote transmissions. Study visits are scheduled annually until the 4th visit, and furthermore, endpoints are collected via lookup in medical records and registries on at least an annual basis until the finalization of the trial.
Device: Implantable loop recorder (Medtronic Reveal LINQ(TM))
The patients in the experimental arm receive an implantable loop recorder (Medtronic Reveal LINQ(TM)) with continuous monitoring, and are followed by daily automated remote transmissions. New arrhythmia episodes are reviewed daily by an experienced medical doctor. If AF lasting ≥6 minutes is detected and confirmed by at least two senior cardiologists, oral anticoagulation is initiated. Decision about specific type of oral anticoagulation, and possible further clinical work-up or treatment, is left to the treating physician and the patient. The remote monitoring continues until end of service of the device, patient withdrawal or other end-of-study.

No Intervention: Control group
Followed according to standard care, i.e. by their general practitioner. Study visits are scheduled at inclusion and after 3 years. Furthermore, the participants are contacted by telephone after 1 and 2 years of follow-up, and endpoints are collected via lookup in medical records and registries on at least an annual basis until the finalization of the trial.



Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Time to adjudicated stroke or systemic arterial embolism [ Time Frame: At the completion of the event-driven trial, expected 4 years ]

    Time to the first of one of the components of the combined primary endpoint

    • adjudicated stroke, or
    • adjudicated systemic arterial embolism


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Time to adjudicated stroke, or systemic arterial embolism, or cardiovascular death [ Time Frame: At the completion of the event-driven trial, expected 4 years ]

    Time to the first of one of the components of the combined endpoint

    • adjudicated stroke, or
    • adjudicated systemic arterial embolism, or
    • adjudicated cardiovascular death

  2. Time to death [ Time Frame: At the completion of the event-driven trial, expected 4 years ]
  3. Time to adjudicated cardiovascular death [ Time Frame: At the completion of the event-driven trial, expected 4 years ]
  4. Time to adjudicated ischemic stroke [ Time Frame: At the completion of the event-driven trial, expected 4 years ]
  5. Time to adjudicated transitory ischaemic attack [ Time Frame: At the completion of the event-driven trial, expected 4 years ]
  6. Time to diagnosis of atrial fibrillation or flutter [ Time Frame: At the completion of the event-driven trial, expected 4 years ]

Other Outcome Measures:
  1. Time to adjudicated intracranial hemorrhage not classified as stroke [ Time Frame: At the completion of the event-driven trial, expected 4 years ]
  2. Time to adjudicated hemorrhagic stroke [ Time Frame: At the completion of the event-driven trial, expected 4 years ]
  3. Time to major bleeding as defined by the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis criteria [ Time Frame: At the completion of the event-driven trial, expected 4 years ]
  4. Time to complications related to device implantation [ Time Frame: At the completion of the event-driven trial, expected 4 years ]
    Infection, hematoma, or other complication related to device implantation requiring intervention



Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   70 Years to 90 Years   (Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Age 70-90 years, and
  • Previously diagnosed with ≥1 of:

    • Diabetes mellitus (type 1 or type 2, with or without medical therapy)
    • Hypertension (with or without medical therapy)
    • Heart failure
    • Previous diagnosed stroke (previous transitory ischemic attack is not considered an inclusion criterion)

Exclusion Criteria:

  • History of atrial fibrillation or flutter irrespective of type
  • Cardiac pacemaker or defibrillator (with or without re-synchronization therapy)
  • Contraindication to oral anticoagulation therapy
  • Anticoagulation therapy; vitamin K antagonists, direct oral anticoagulants, or (low-molecular) heparins. Therapy with platelet inhibitors such as acetyl-salicylic acid, clopidogrel, persantine is not considered an exclusion criterion
  • Renal failure treated with permanent dialysis
  • Uncorrected congenital heart disease, or severe valvular stenosis, obstructive cardiomyopathy, active myocarditis, or constrictive pericarditis.
  • On a waiting list for major surgery (cardiac, thoracic or abdominal)
  • Cardiac or thoracic surgery has been performed within 3 months from inclusion
  • Any major organ transplant (e.g. lung, liver, heart, or kidney)
  • Cytotoxic or cytostatic chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy for treatment of a malignancy within 6 months before randomization or clinical evidence of current malignancy with the following exceptions: Basal or squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, prostate cancer (if stable, localized disease with a life expectancy of > 2.5 years in the opinion of the investigator)
  • Life-expectancy shorter than 6 months
  • Known to be human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive with an expected survival of less than 5 years due to HIV infection
  • Recent (within 3 months) history of alcohol or drug abuse based on self-reporting
  • Any condition (e.g. psychiatric illness, dementia) or situation, that in the investigators opinion could put the subject at significant risk, confound the study results, or interfere significantly with the subject participation in the study
  • Unwillingness to participate or patient does not understand Danish language

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT02036450


Locations
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Denmark
Rigshospitalet
Copenhagen, Denmark
Sponsors and Collaborators
Rigshospitalet, Denmark
Bispebjerg Hospital
Zealand University Hospital
Odense University Hospital
University of Southern Denmark
Aalborg University
Investigators
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Principal Investigator: Jesper H Svendsen, MD, DMSc Rigshospitalet, Denmark

Additional Information:
Publications:
Heidenreich PA, Trogdon JG, Khavjou OA, Butler J, Dracup K, Ezekowitz MD, Finkelstein EA, Hong Y, Johnston SC, Khera A, Lloyd-Jones DM, Nelson SA, Nichol G, Orenstein D, Wilson PW, Woo YJ; American Heart Association Advocacy Coordinating Committee; Stroke Council; Council on Cardiovascular Radiology and Intervention; Council on Clinical Cardiology; Council on Epidemiology and Prevention; Council on Arteriosclerosis; Thrombosis and Vascular Biology; Council on Cardiopulmonary; Critical Care; Perioperative and Resuscitation; Council on Cardiovascular Nursing; Council on the Kidney in Cardiovascular Disease; Council on Cardiovascular Surgery and Anesthesia, and Interdisciplinary Council on Quality of Care and Outcomes Research. Forecasting the future of cardiovascular disease in the United States: a policy statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2011 Mar 1;123(8):933-44. doi: 10.1161/CIR.0b013e31820a55f5. Epub 2011 Jan 24.

Publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):
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Responsible Party: Jesper Hastrup Svendsen, Professor, MD, DMSc, FESC, Rigshospitalet, Denmark
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02036450    
Other Study ID Numbers: H-4-2013-025
13-135225 ( Other Grant/Funding Number: Danish Strategic Research Council )
First Posted: January 15, 2014    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: January 18, 2020
Last Verified: January 2020
Keywords provided by Jesper Hastrup Svendsen, Rigshospitalet, Denmark:
atrial fibrillation
cardiac arrhythmia
stroke
implantable loop recorder
bleeding
anticoagulation
hypertension
diabetes
heart failure
mortality
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Stroke
Hypertension
Atrial Fibrillation
Cerebrovascular Disorders
Brain Diseases
Central Nervous System Diseases
Nervous System Diseases
Vascular Diseases
Cardiovascular Diseases
Arrhythmias, Cardiac
Heart Diseases
Pathologic Processes