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Exercise Games and Physical Activity: Can a Home-based Exergame System Increase Physical Activity?

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT02032667
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : January 10, 2014
Last Update Posted : May 7, 2015
Canadian Cancer Society Research Institute (CCSRI)
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Ryan Rhodes, University of Victoria

Brief Summary:
This study will be investigating an innovative and exciting way to increase physical activity in children between the ages of 9 and 12 years old. Families will be provided with a state-of-the-art exercise bike and video game console to have in their homes. The video games will provide a variety of play including racing, puzzle solving, collaborative play, team play and competitive play. We will be comparing whether a 'multi-player' condition has a greater adherence compared to a 'single-player' condition.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Physical Activity Behavioral: Multi-player condition Not Applicable

  Show Detailed Description

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 72 participants
Allocation: Non-Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Single (Participant)
Primary Purpose: Prevention
Official Title: Exercise Games and Physical Activity: Does Multi-player Online Play Improve Adherence?
Study Start Date : September 2013
Actual Primary Completion Date : January 2015
Actual Study Completion Date : January 2015

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Multi-player condition
The multi-player condition examines the aspect of online gaming and social interaction with adherence to the exergame.
Behavioral: Multi-player condition
Children in the multi-player condition will be able to play with and compete against other children in real time.

No Intervention: Single-player condition
This arm will look at whether those who play an exergame by themselves or with a computer generated player have the same adherence and use when compared to a multi-player condition.

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Change in physical activity [ Time Frame: Baseline, 2 weeks, 4 weeks and 6 weeks. ]
    Physical activity will be measured via the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children (PAQ-C) and objective data (use of gamebike) from the exergame. The PAQ-C assesses habitual moderate to vigorous physical activity in children and adolescents.

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Change in motivation [ Time Frame: Time 1 after first assignment of condition, 2 weeks, 4 weeks and 6 weeks ]
    Motivation for physical activity will be measured using the constructs of the Theory of Planned Behaviour. These items will measure affective attitude, instrumental attitude, injunctive norm, descriptive norm and perceived behavioural control.

  2. Change in health-related quality of life/psychosocial distress [ Time Frame: Baseline, 2 weeks, 4 weeks and 6 weeks. ]
    Children's Quality of Life will be assessed using the 5-item Satisfaction with Life Scale Adapted for Children (SWLS-C).

  3. Change in health-related fitness [ Time Frame: Baseline and 6 weeks ]
    Body composition, aerobic fitness and musculoskeletal fitness will be measured.

  4. Change in parent and family based leisure time physical activity [ Time Frame: Baseline and at follow-up (6 weeks) ]
    Parent and family based LTPA will be measured by the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire and the number of times family based physical activity occurs per week will also be assessed.

  5. Change in equipment and home environment [ Time Frame: Baseline ]
    The home environment questionnaire will look at the availability of physical activity equipment in the home for the child.

  6. Change in sedentary behaviour [ Time Frame: Baseline and follow up (6 week) ]
    Sedentary behaviour of the child will be assessed through parental reported behaviour of their child throughout the week

  7. Change in social support [ Time Frame: Baseline and follow up (6-weeks) ]
    A social support questionnaire will be administered to the child to look at whether parents and friends of the child encourage the child to play sports, to be active and to play the exergame.

  8. Change in elicited beliefs [ Time Frame: 2 weeks, 4 weeks and 6 weeks ]
    The elicited beliefs questionnaire will look at the experience of the child throughout the intervention.

  9. Change in program belonging and social connectedness [ Time Frame: 2 weeks, 4 weeks and 6 weeks. ]
    Examining the sense of connection between players during gameplay throughout the intervention.

  10. Gamer-type [ Time Frame: Baseline ]
    This will be a web-based questionnaire looking at the type of elements in the videogame that the child is attracted to.

Other Outcome Measures:
  1. Sociodemographic measures [ Time Frame: Baseline ]
    Sociodemographic measures will include age, parental gender, ethnicity, education, employment status of parents/family, household income, height and weight of parent(s), health status of parent(s).

Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   9 Years to 12 Years   (Child)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Participants will be children between the ages of 9 and 12 years old from the greater Victoria, B.C. area and Kingston, Ontario region. Children will be included if they participate in physical activity below Canadian recommended guidelines (for children under 60 minutes of activity daily).
  • Participants must also pass the physical activity readiness protocol or seek physician clearance before participation.
  • The families must also agree to having the exergaming station in an accessible location in their homes for the duration of the trial
  • Will need high speed internet

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Children outside of the ages of 9 - 12 years
  • Children who are active greater than recommended guidelines (more than 60 minutes of daily activity)
  • Children with special needs (i.e. autism spectrum disorder, ADHD/ADD)

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT02032667

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Canada, British Columbia
University of Victoria
Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, STN-CSC
Canada, Ontario
Queens University
Kingston, Ontario, Canada, K7L 3X5
Sponsors and Collaborators
University of Victoria
Canadian Cancer Society Research Institute (CCSRI)
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Principal Investigator: Ryan Rhodes, Doctoral University of Victoria
Principal Investigator: Nicholas Graham, Doctoral Queen's University

Publications of Results:
Williams D, Ducheneaut N, Li X, Zhang Y, Yee N, Nickell E. From Tree House to Barracks: The Social Life of Guilds in World of Warcraft. Games and Culture. 2006;1:338-61.

Other Publications:
Statistics Canada. Table 102-0561 - Leading causes of death, total population, by age group and sex, Canada, annual, CANSIM (database). Journal [serial on the Internet]. 2012 Date: Available from:
Jedwab J. Actively Canadian: Who's the most active of us all? : Association for Canadian Studies; 2005.
Statistics Canada. Canadian Community Health Survey 1994-2003. Government of Canada; 2005 [updated 2005; cited 2005 April 13]; Available from:
Rhodes RE, Fiala B, Conner M. Affective expectations of physical activity among adults: A review and meta-analysis. Annals of Behavioral Medicine (abstract). in press.
Mark R, Rhodes RE, Warburton DER, Bredin SSG. Interactive video games and physical activity: A review of literature and future directions. Health and Fitness Journal of Canada. 2008;1:14-24.
R. K. A Theory of Fun for Game Design. Paraglyph Press; 2004.
Yee N. The Demographics, Motivations and Derived Experiences of Users of Massively-Multiuser Online Graphical Environments. PRESENCE: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments. 2006;15:309-29.
Carron AV, Hausenblas HA, Mack D. Social influence and exercise: A meta-analysis. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology. 1996;18:1-16.
Ye Z, Hernandez H, Graham TCN, Fehlings D, Switzer L, Schumann I. Liberi and the Racer Bike: Exergaming Technology for Children with Cerebral Palsy. ASSETS. in press.
Hernandez HA, Graham TCN, Fehlings D, Switzer L, Ye Z, Hamza MA, Savery C, Stach T, editors. Design of an exergaming station for children with cerebral palsy. 30th international conference on Human factors in computing systems - CHI '12; 2012; Austin, Texas.
Public Health Agency of Canada. Canada's family guide to physical activity (6-9 years of age). Journal [serial on the Internet]. 2002 Date: Available from:
Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology. Canadian physical activity guidelines. Journal [serial on the Internet]. 2011 Date: Available from:
Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology. Physical activity readiness questionnaire. Journal [serial on the Internet]. 2012 Date: Available from:
Faul F, Erdfelder E. GPOWER: A priori, post hoc, and compromise power analyses for MS DOS. 2.0 ed. Bonn, Germany: Dept. of Psychology; 1992.
Travers KD. Using qualitative research to understand the socio-cultural origins of diabetes among Cape Breton Mi'kmaq. Chronic Diseases in Canada. 1995;16:140-3.
Ajzen I. The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes. 1991;50:179-211.
Ajzen I. Constructing a theory of planned behavior questionnaire. Journal [serial on the Internet]. 2006 Date: Available from:
Gadermann AM, Schonert-Reichl KA, Zumbo BD. Investigating Validity evidence of the Satisfaction with Life Scale Adapted for Children. Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement. in press.
54. Allison PD. Missing Data. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications; 2002.
Patton MQ. Qualitative Evaluation and Research Methods. second ed. Newbury Park, NJ: Sage; 1990.
Crabtree BF, Miller WL. Doing Qualitative Research. Newbury Park, CA: Sage; 1992.
Nintendo Co. Ltd., from R. Consolidated Sales Transition by Region. Journal [serial on the Internet]. 2012 Date: Available from:
BBC News. Microsoft Kinect 'fastest-selling device on record'. Journal [serial on the Internet]. 2011 Date: Available from:
Entertainment Software Association. Industry Facts. Journal [serial on the Internet]. 2009 Date: Available from:
Entertainment Software Association. Essential Facts About the Computer and Video Game Industry. Journal [serial on the Internet]. 2012 Date: Available from:
New York Times. Exercise games don't make kids more active. Journal [serial on the Internet]. 2012 Date: Available from:
Manske SR, editor. Explaining knowledge use among clients of the Program Training & Consultation Centre. Toronto; 2001; University of Toronto.

Publications automatically indexed to this study by Identifier (NCT Number):
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Responsible Party: Ryan Rhodes, Dr. Ryan Rhodes, University of Victoria Identifier: NCT02032667     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: CCS-701723
First Posted: January 10, 2014    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: May 7, 2015
Last Verified: May 2015
Keywords provided by Ryan Rhodes, University of Victoria:
physical activity