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Improving Oral Health With Serious Games (AOTSM)

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02027597
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : January 6, 2014
Last Update Posted : January 6, 2014
Sponsor:
Collaborators:
National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR)
National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities (NIMHD)
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Jacqueline E. Pickrell, University of Washington

Brief Summary:

This study investigated if computer games can be effective at changing the way children take care of their teeth. We a museum exhibit with 3D virtual reality games called "Attack of the S. Mutans!" Our hypothesis was that children who played the games and visited the exhibit would show improved attitudes about oral health, which would translate into improved brushing and self-care habits.

In this randomized controlled study with school children aged 8-12, we compared the outcomes for three groups: Group 1) Visited Attack of the S. Mutans!; Group 2) Experienced a hands-on classroom presentation about virtual reality being used for healthcare; Group 3) Received no-treatment.


Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Caries Tooth Decay Cavities Gingivitis Other: Attack of the S. Mutans Other: Follow-up Other: SnowWorld Not Applicable

Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 161 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Single (Participant)
Primary Purpose: Prevention
Official Title: Improving Oral Health With Serious Games
Study Start Date : October 2008
Actual Primary Completion Date : December 2010
Actual Study Completion Date : August 2011

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

MedlinePlus related topics: Dental Health

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Video Game Treatment
This group received the AOTSM game experience followed by additional oral health information. They did not receive any follow-up treatment after the exhibit.
Other: Attack of the S. Mutans
A research assistant led groups of students through the Attack of the S. Mutans exhibit. All participants played all the games and viewed all the graphical content of the exhibit.
Other Name: AOTSM

Active Comparator: Control
Instead of playing Attack of the S. Mutans!, children in the control group attended a 90 minute classroom session about virtual reality applications for relieving pain and for therapy. This content was unrelated to oral health.
Other: SnowWorld
SnowWorld is a 3D first-person-shooter game developed by Firsthand Technology. In SnowWorld, the player shoots snowballs at penguins, polar bears, and other features of a frozen landscape. The game is designed to help burn victims cope with pain, and has no oral health messages.

Experimental: Video Game Treatment Plus Follow-Up
Children assigned to the Treatment-Plus conditions not only had the Attack of the S. Mutans video game experience, but also gained access to an educational website that reinforced the exhibit's teachings two months later. These students received a special login and password in the mail and were instructed to visit the site before completing their next questionnaire.
Other: Attack of the S. Mutans
A research assistant led groups of students through the Attack of the S. Mutans exhibit. All participants played all the games and viewed all the graphical content of the exhibit.
Other Name: AOTSM

Other: Follow-up
This group experienced the Attack of the S. Mutans! exhibit and 3 doses of follow-up booster content at a web site.




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Self-Efficacy [ Time Frame: 8 months post treatment ]
    Follow-up surveys were conducted at 3 points after the intervention for all groups. The survey included questions about the children's attitudes (self-efficacy) toward oral health and taking care of their teeth. Surveys were paper-pencil self-reports from both parents and children. Items were drawn from Morowatisharifabad and Shirazi, (2007) and adapted for ease of understanding for English speaking children.


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Self-care behavior [ Time Frame: 8 months post treatment ]
    Separate surveys of children and their parents were conducted at 3 points after the intervention all groups. The survey included questions about how often and how well the children took care of their teeth.


Other Outcome Measures:
  1. Oral health literacy [ Time Frame: 8 months post treatment ]
    we assessed children's oral health knowledge in two ways. First, children reported their overall oral health knowledge using three-point rating scales (=not really to 3=mostly) to respond to six items, including, "By brushing and flossing my teeth, I am less susceptible to tooth decay." Negatively worded items were reverse-coded, and the estimated internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) of the pre-game survey was.49. Second, children indicated their brushing knowledge using five-point rating scales (1=strongly disagree to 5=strongly agree) to respond to four items, including "Tooth brushing gets rid of bad breath."



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Ages Eligible for Study:   8 Years to 12 Years   (Child)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

For participation in the study, enrollment criteria are as follows: 1) a dentist's diagnosis of tooth decay, or restorative dental work in the previous year; and 2) Parents or guardians provide usable baseline data, including contact information for follow-up questionnaires.

Exclusion Criteria:


Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT02027597


Locations
United States, Washington
Firsthand Technology Inc.
Seattle, Washington, United States, 98112
Sponsors and Collaborators
University of Washington
National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR)
National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities (NIMHD)
Investigators
Principal Investigator: Howard A Rose, M.Ed. Firsthand Technology
Principal Investigator: Ari J Hollander, MSE Firsthand Technology

Additional Information:
Responsible Party: Jacqueline E. Pickrell, Acting Assistant Professor, Oral Health Sciences, University of Washington
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02027597     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 35095-EB
5R44DE019043-02 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
First Posted: January 6, 2014    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: January 6, 2014
Last Verified: January 2014

Keywords provided by Jacqueline E. Pickrell, University of Washington:
video games
oral health
social cognitive theory
behavior change
randomized trial
growth modeling
minority
gender

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Gingivitis
Gingival Diseases
Periodontal Diseases
Mouth Diseases
Stomatognathic Diseases