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Efficacy and Safety of Nasal Glucagon for Treatment of Hypoglycemia in Adults

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT01994746
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : November 26, 2013
Results First Posted : October 10, 2016
Last Update Posted : September 23, 2019
T1D Exchange Clinic Network Coordinating Center
Locemia Solutions ULC
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Eli Lilly and Company

Brief Summary:
The purpose of this study is to assess the efficacy, pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD), and safety of 3 milligrams (mg) glucagon (glucagon nasal powder) administered nasally compared with commercially available glucagon given by intramuscular injection.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 Drug: Nasal Glucagon Drug: Intramuscular Glucagon Phase 3

Detailed Description:

Each glucagon dosing visit was conducted after an overnight fast of at least 8 h with a starting plasma glucose >= 90 mg/dL. Hypoglycemia was induced by an intravenous (IV) infusion of regular insulin diluted in normal saline during the clinic visit. Five minutes after stopping the insulin infusion (once the plasma glucose was <60 mg/dL), participants were treated with either a 3 mg glucagon dose nasally or 1 mg of glucagon administered by intramuscular (IM) injection.

After a wash-out period of 7 days or more, participants returned to the clinic and the procedure repeated with each participant crossed over to the other treatment. As such, each participant underwent two episodes of insulin-induced hypoglycemia in random order and received glucagon nasal powder during one episode and commercially available glucagon (GlucaGen, Novo Nordisk) by IM injection during the other episode.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 77 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Crossover Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Efficacy and Safety of Nasal Glucagon for Treatment of Insulin Induced Hypoglycemia in Adults With Diabetes
Study Start Date : November 2013
Actual Primary Completion Date : January 2015
Actual Study Completion Date : January 2015

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

MedlinePlus related topics: Hypoglycemia
Drug Information available for: Glucagon

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Nasal Glucagon
At one visit, a glucagon dose of 3 mg was administered in a nostril with a prefilled delivery device that delivers a single dose upon activation.
Drug: Nasal Glucagon
Other Names:
  • AMG504-1
  • LY900018

Active Comparator: Intramuscular Glucagon
At a separate visit, 1 mg of glucagon was administered into the deltoid muscle of the non-dominant arm (intramuscular [IM]).
Drug: Intramuscular Glucagon
Other Name: GlucaGen HypoKit

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Increase in Plasma Glucose Level to >=70mg/dL or an Increase of >=20mg/dL From Glucose Nadir [ Time Frame: Within 30 minutes after receiving glucagon at both dosing visits (glucose was measured at pre-dose; 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 minutes following glucagon administration) ]
    Increase in blood glucose to ≥70 mg/dL or an increase of ≥20 mg/dL from glucose nadir within 30 minutes after receiving study glucagon, without receiving additional actions to increase the blood glucose level defines treatment success. Due to the residual activity of circulating insulin, glucose nadir was defined as the minimum glucose measurement at the time of, or within 10 minutes following glucagon administration.

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Nasal and Non-nasal Effects/Symptoms [ Time Frame: Pre-dose; 15, 30, 60, and 90 post glucagon administration ]
    Symptoms of runny nose, nasal congestion and/or itching, sneezing, watery and/or itchy eyes, redness of eyes, and itching of ears and/or throat were assessed. This was done via the "Nasal Non-nasal Score Questionnaire". Each of the 9 symptoms is assigned an integer value from 0 to 3; higher values indicate more severe symptoms (a score of 0 indicates no symptoms). The reported results indicate the cohort median out of a possible maximum value of 27 (summing all 9 questions for each subject and reporting the median/IQR across participants).

  2. Recovery From Symptoms of Hypoglycemia [ Time Frame: Pre-dose;15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes following administration of glucagon ]
    Recovery from hypoglycemia symptoms were assessed using the Edinburgh Hypoglycemia Scale. The Edinburgh Hypoglycemia Symptom Scale measures the intensity of 15 commonly experienced hypoglycemic symptoms on a 7-point Likert scale (1 = not present, 7 = very intense). The higher the score, the more intense the hypoglycemia symptoms. The sum of each symptom score would yield a range of 15 to 105 (i.e., 15 x 7 =105). The total score was calculated as the sum of each symptom score minus 15, and summarized at each time point by treatment group.

  3. Time From Glucagon Administration to Blood Glucose >/=70 mg/dL or an Increase ≥20 mg/dL in Blood Glucose From Nadir [ Time Frame: Pre-dose; 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 minutes following glucagon administration ]
    The mean time from glucagon administration to blood glucose >/=70 mg/dL or an increase ≥20 mg/dL in blood glucose from nadir.

  4. Area Under the Curve From Time Zero to the Last Quantifiable Concentration (AUC0-t) of Baseline-Adjusted Glucagon [ Time Frame: Pre-dose; 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 90 minutes following glucagon administration ]
  5. Maximum Change From Baseline Concentration (Cmax) of Glucagon [ Time Frame: Pre-dose; 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 90 minutes following glucagon administration ]
  6. Time to Maximum Change From Baseline Concentration (Tmax) of Glucagon [ Time Frame: Pre-dose; 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 90 minutes following glucagon administration ]
  7. Area Under the Effect Concentration Time Curve (AUEC0-1.5) of Baseline-Adjusted Glucose From Time Zero up to 90 Minutes [ Time Frame: Pre-dose; 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 90 minutes following glucagon administration ]
  8. Maximum Change From Baseline Concentration (Cmax) of Glucose [ Time Frame: Pre-dose; 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 90 minutes following glucagon administration ]
  9. Time to Maximum Change From Baseline Concentration (Tmax) of Glucose [ Time Frame: Pre-dose; 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 90 minutes following glucagon administration ]

Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 64 Years   (Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

To be eligible, the following inclusion criteria must be met:

  • Clinical diagnosis of either type 1 diabetes receiving daily insulin since the time of diagnosis for at least 2 years or type 2 diabetes receiving multiple daily insulin doses for at least 2 years
  • At least 18.0 years of age and less than 65.0 years
  • Body mass index (BMI) greater than or equal to 20.0 and below or equal to 35.0 kilograms per meter squared (kg/m²)
  • Weighs at least 50 kg (110 pounds)
  • Females must meet one of the following criteria:

    • Of childbearing potential but agree to use an accepted contraceptive regimen as described in the study procedure manual throughout the entire duration of the study (from the screening until study completion)
    • Of non-childbearing potential, defined as a female who has had a hysterectomy or tubal ligation, is clinically considered infertile or is in a menopausal state (at least 1 year without menses)
  • In good general health with no conditions that could influence the outcome of the trial, and in the judgment of the Investigator is a good candidate for the study based on review of available medical history, physical examination and clinical laboratory evaluations
  • Willingness to adhere to the study requirements

Exclusion Criteria:

An individual is not eligible if any of the following exclusion criteria are present:

  • Females who are pregnant according to a positive urine pregnancy test, actively attempting to get pregnant, or are lactating
  • History of hypersensitivity to glucagon or any related products or severe hypersensitivity reactions (such as angioedema) to any drugs
  • Presence of cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, liver or kidney disease, or any other conditions which in the judgment of the investigator could interfere with the absorption, distribution, metabolism or excretion of drugs or could potentiate or predispose to undesired effects
  • History of pheochromocytoma (i.e. adrenal gland tumor) or insulinoma.
  • History of an episode of severe hypoglycemia (as defined by an episode that required third party assistance for treatment) in the 1 month prior to enrolling in the study
  • Use of daily systemic beta-blocker, indomethacin, warfarin or anticholinergic drugs
  • History of epilepsy or seizure disorder
  • Regularly consumes 3 or more alcoholic beverages per day
  • Use of an Investigational Product in another clinical trial within the past 30 days
  • Donated 225 milliliters (mL) or more of blood in the previous 8 weeks before the first glucagon dosing

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT01994746

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United States, Colorado
Barbara Davis Center for Diabetes
Aurora, Colorado, United States, 80045
United States, Connecticut
Yale University
New Haven, Connecticut, United States, 06520
United States, Florida
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida, United States, 32605
United States, Indiana
Riley Hospital for Children Indiana University Health
Indianapolis, Indiana, United States, 46202
United States, Minnesota
University of Minnesota
Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States, 55454
United States, New York
UPA Buffalo
Buffalo, New York, United States, 14222
United States, Oregon
Oregon Health and Science University
Portland, Oregon, United States, 97239
United States, Pennsylvania
University of Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, 19104
Sponsors and Collaborators
Eli Lilly and Company
T1D Exchange Clinic Network Coordinating Center
Locemia Solutions ULC
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Study Director: Call 1-877-CTLILLY (1-877-285-4559) or 1-317-615-4559 Mon - Fri 9 AM - 5 PM Eastern time (UTC/GMT - 5 hours, EST) Eli Lilly and Company
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Responsible Party: Eli Lilly and Company Identifier: NCT01994746    
Other Study ID Numbers: 16422
INGluc001 ( Other Identifier: Jaeb Center for Health Research )
I8R-MC-IGBC ( Other Identifier: Eli Lilly and Company )
AMG106 ( Other Identifier: Locemia )
First Posted: November 26, 2013    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: October 10, 2016
Last Update Posted: September 23, 2019
Last Verified: September 2019
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: Yes
Plan Description: Anonymized individual patient level data will be provided in a secure access environment upon approval of a research proposal and a signed data sharing agreement.
Supporting Materials: Study Protocol
Statistical Analysis Plan (SAP)
Clinical Study Report (CSR)
Time Frame: Data are available 6 months after the primary publication and approval of the indication studied in the US and EU, whichever is later. Data will be indefinitely available for requesting.
Access Criteria: A research proposal must be approved by an independent review panel and researchers must sign a data sharing agreement.
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1
Glucose Metabolism Disorders
Metabolic Diseases
Diabetes Mellitus
Endocrine System Diseases
Autoimmune Diseases
Immune System Diseases
Glucagon-Like Peptide 1
Gastrointestinal Agents
Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists
Physiological Effects of Drugs