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Treatment Efficacy and Malaria TRANSmission After Artemisinin Combination Therapy 2 (TRANSACT2) (TRANSACT2)

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT01939886
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : September 11, 2013
Last Update Posted : November 28, 2013
Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre, Tanzania
Radboud University
European Union
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine

Brief Summary:

Artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) with artemether lumefantrine (AL) is currently the first line treatment policy in Kenya. AL is an efficacious drug that also has the capacity to reduce malaria transmission to mosquitoes. Nevertheless, there is concern about the development of parasite resistance against AL. Clinical trials in Asia showed that mefloquine-artesunate (MQ-AS) may be more efficacious than AL and may have a more pronounced beneficial effect on post-treatment malaria transmission. MQ-AS is registered and used in Kenya but there have been no reported direct comparisons of AL and MQ-AS with clinical and transmission endpoints (i.e. adequately clearing parasites and preventing transmission to mosquitoes).

Screening for molecular markers that are related to parasite susceptibility to ACT drugs and to post-ACT treatment malaria transmission can assist strategies to prevent the development and spread of ACT resistance.

In the current study, we compare AL and MQ-AS for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Our endpoints are i) clinical efficacy, ii) post-treatment gametocytaemia by molecular techniques.

In the current study, the investigators compare AL and MQ-AS for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. The investigators endpoints are

clinical efficacy post-treatment gametocytaemia by molecular techniques

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Malaria Drug: Mefloquine - Artesunate Drug: Artemether-lumefantrine combination Phase 3

Detailed Description:

Accurate diagnosis followed by prompt and efficacious treatment is the backbone of any malaria control programme. However, malaria treatment has been facing huge challenges in recent years. A number of affordable antimalarial drugs have been used to cure malaria since the 1940s: these include chloroquine (CQ), sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP; Fansidar®), mefloquine (MQ), amodiaquine (AQ) and quinine. The emergence and spread of resistance to these commonly-used drugs has been largely responsible for the worsening of the malaria situation observed in the past decades.

Across the African continent, guidelines have recently been changed. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends for falciparum malaria the use of combination therapies, preferably those containing artemisinin derivatives (ACT, artemisinin-based combination therapy). Artemisinin derivatives, e.g. artesunate, artemether and dihydroartemisinin, being extremely potent antimalarial agents are the ideal partners in combinations with other antimalarials. ACTs have three demonstrable advantages over conventional therapy, they i) are efficacious in clearing asexual parasites, ii) substantially reduce post-treatment gametocyte carriage and iii) "protect" the partner drug from selecting resistant parasites.

In Kenya, both CQ and SP have lost clinical efficacy. CQ was replaced by SP in 1998 and in the year 2006, SP was effectively replaced by Artemether-Lumefantrine (AL: Coartem®). The policy change to the artemisinin-based drug AL is in line with the WHO recommendations to shift to ACT as first line antimalarial treatment.The most efficacious ACT, however, needs local comparisons in terms of treatment efficacy and transmission-reducing activity.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 219 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Double (Care Provider, Investigator)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Treatment Efficacy and Malaria TRANSmission After Artemisinin Combination Therapy 2 (TRANSACT2)
Study Start Date : April 2013
Actual Primary Completion Date : November 2013
Actual Study Completion Date : November 2013

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

MedlinePlus related topics: Malaria

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Artemether- Lumefantrine
Treatment with artemether-lumefantrine (AL; Coartem; Novartis Pharma), administered as half a tablet (20 mg of artemether and 120 mg of lumefantrine) per 5 kg of body weight in a 6-dose regimen (at enrolment and 8, 20, 32, 44, and 56 h [+/-90 min] after the initiation of treatment). AL is currently the first line treatment in Tanzania Other Name: Coartem;
Drug: Artemether-lumefantrine combination
Other Name: Coartem

Active Comparator: Drug: Mefloquine-Artesunate, an alternative ACT
Treatment with the paediatric fixed dose combination Mefloquine-Artesunate (MQ-AS; Artequin; Mepha, Aesch, Basel, Switzerland, artesunate (50 mg/day) and mefloquine (125 mg/day) fixed dose formulation (stick pack) once daily for 3 consecutive days, given in three daily doses. The weight range of enrolled children is chosen to be recommended for this fixed dose combination. MQ-AS is available in Kenya as Artequin and has been extensively tested in uncomplicated malaria in children.
Drug: Mefloquine - Artesunate
Other Name: Artequin

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. the number of participants with clinical and parasitological treatment failure after treatment artemether-lumefantrine (AL) and mefloquine-artesunate MQ-AS [ Time Frame: 42 day follow-up ]
    Parasite prevalence will be determined by microscopy and molecular methods on days 3-42 after intitiation of treatment. Clinical (fever+parasitological failure) and parasitological efficacy will be determined in relation to treatment arm and parasite clearance dynamics

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. the number of individuals with gametocytes after treatment with AL or MQ-AS [ Time Frame: 42 days follow-up ]
    gametocyte carriage will be determined by microscopy and molecular QT-NASBA to generate gametocyte prevalence estimates on follow-up days and the mean duration of gametocyte carriage in days.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   6 Months to 10 Years   (Child)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Age 6 months - 10 years
  • Residents of research area (5 km around the clinic)
  • Willingness to come for complete scheduled follow-up.
  • Uncomplicated malaria with P. falciparum mono-infection
  • Parasitaemia of 1000-200,000 parasites/ul
  • Temperature > 37.5°C and < 39.5°C, or history of fever in previous 24 hours.
  • No history of adverse reactions to AL
  • Understanding of the procedures of the study by parent or guardian and willing to participate by signing informed consent forms.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • General signs of severe malaria
  • Haemoglobin concentration < 5g/dl
  • Presence of disease other than malaria causing febrile conditions
  • Mixed infection with P. malariae or other non-falciparum malaria species
  • Unwilling to participate and sign informed consent forms.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT01939886

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St. Jude's Clinic, ICIPE Thomas Odhiambo Campus
Mbita, Nyanza, Kenya, 40305
Sponsors and Collaborators
London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre, Tanzania
Radboud University
European Union
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Principal Investigator: Patrick Sawa, MB.Ch.B, MSc. KCMC/ICIPE
Principal Investigator: Jaffu Chilongola, PhD KCMC
Study Director: Colin Sutherland, PhD LSHTM
Study Chair: Henk Schallig, PhD KIT, Amsterdam
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Responsible Party: London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine Identifier: NCT01939886    
Other Study ID Numbers: TRANSACT 2
First Posted: September 11, 2013    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: November 28, 2013
Last Verified: November 2013
Keywords provided by London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine:
Malaria treatment efficacy
Malaria transmission
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Protozoan Infections
Parasitic Diseases
Artemether, Lumefantrine Drug Combination
Antiprotozoal Agents
Antiparasitic Agents
Anti-Infective Agents
Antineoplastic Agents
Antiviral Agents
Antiplatyhelmintic Agents