Clinical Effects of Tooth Powder on Gingivitis (Toothpowder)
|ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01902095|
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : July 18, 2013
Last Update Posted : July 18, 2013
Dental plaque, known as dental biofilm, is implicated as the primary etiological agent responsible for oral inflammatory diseases. Matured form of dental plaque plays a major role in the pathogenicity of gingivitis; if not managed in early stages it results in a cascade of events leading to the destruction of periodontal tissues.
Effective plaque control techniques have been suggested that maintain dental biofilm at levels compatible with oral health and is the cornerstone for all preventive strategies to control oral diseases particularly gingivitis. To clean teeth and ensure effective plaque control, different mechanical means have been in use since centuries. However because of an inadequacy in plaque removal, different antimicrobial and antiplaque agents have been introduced in oral-care products.
The use of dentifrices has been recommended over the years as the ultimate way of preventing the incidence of oral diseases. Dentifrices have the anti-plaque and the anti-gingivitis capabilities due to their composition. Toothpastes and to a lesser extent toothpowders are common oral-care products used to eliminate plaque and other deposits from tooth surfaces. Existent literature has focused more on toothpaste and mouth rinse and derelicts toothpowder despite its difference owing to the absence of humectants. With the intention to advance the knowledge on this issue as well as close the research gap, this study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of toothpowder in alleviating gingivitis, controlling dental plaque, and inhibiting extrinsic stains.
A single-blind, parallel arm randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluated the efficacy of toothpowder against toothpaste through oral hygiene parameters of plaque and stain deposits on teeth and gingival inflammation. Plaque Index, Lobene Stain Index and Gingival Index were used as measures of oral hygiene.
The current RCT revealed that toothpowder and toothpaste were equally effective in both treatment and control groups from clinical perspective however toothpowder showed a statistically significant effectiveness as compared to toothpaste. Toothpowder, composed of calcium carbonate and essential oils, has demonstrated to be statistically more effective than toothpaste in controlling extrinsic dental staining, dental plaque and gingival inflammation.
|Condition or disease||Intervention/treatment||Phase|
|Gingivitis Mouth Diseases||Device: Tooth powder Device: Tooth paste (control)||Phase 2|
A single-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted during November 2010 and October 2011. After screening and consent, eligible subjects received mechanical periodontal therapy. Subjects were then randomized to Test group and Control group at a 1:1 ratio. The test group was provided tooth powder and a control group received toothpaste. Healthy subjects with plaque induced gingivitis and who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were recruited from the Department of Periodontology, Fatima Jinnah Dental College Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan.77 subjects with gingivitis were randomized to test group and 77 subjects to the control group. Therefore, to complete the randomized controlled trial, a total of 154 subjects were recruited and randomized.
Outcome measure gingivitis was measured through plaque index, gingival index and Lobene stain index.
|Study Type :||Interventional (Clinical Trial)|
|Actual Enrollment :||154 participants|
|Intervention Model:||Parallel Assignment|
|Official Title:||Evaluation of the Clinical Effects of Tooth Powder on Plaque Induced Gingivitis|
|Study Start Date :||November 2010|
|Actual Primary Completion Date :||July 2011|
|Actual Study Completion Date :||October 2011|
Experimental: Tooth powder (test) arm
Experimental arm: tooth powder
Device: Tooth powder
Each participant was handed over a sealed pack containing a teeth cleaning kit that included tooth powder (test) or toothpaste (control) and a new soft toothbrush along with written and verbal instructions of usage. They were advised to brush their teeth twice a day with the given dentifrices and tooth brush for two weeks.
Active Comparator: Tooth Paste (control)
Device: Tooth paste (control)
Other Name: Tooth paste
- Gingivitis [ Time Frame: November 2010 - October 2011 (up to 1 year) ]Gingival Index (Löe and Silness, 1963) modified by Talbott et al. (1977) was used for the assessment of the gingival condition and record qualitative changes in the gingiva. Its scores (0 to 3) recorded the marginal and interproximal tissues separately. The criteria are: 0= normal gingiva, 1= mild inflammation - slight change in color and slight edema but no bleeding on probing, 2= moderate inflammation - redness, edema and glazing, bleeding on probing and 3= severe inflammation - marked redness and edema, ulceration with a tendency to spontaneous bleeding.
- Plaque [ Time Frame: November 2010 - October 2011 (up to 1 year) ]Quigley-Hein (Tuersky) Index was used for plaque deposits. This index is based on the visually check of non-restored surface of all the teeth except third molars; this is done on a scale from score 0 to score 5. An index for the entire mouth is determined by dividing the total score by the number surfaces examined. The criteria for scoring are: 0 = no plaque, 1 = separate flecks of plaque, 2 = continuous band of 1 mm, 3 = >1mm and <1/3 of tooth surface, 4 = >1/3 and <2/3 and 5 = >2/3 of tooth covered with plaque
- External tooth stains [ Time Frame: November 2010 - October 2011 (up to 1 year) ]Lobene index based on the intensity and area of stains covered on the labial surfaces of the anterior teeth was used. Buccal surfaces of teeth are divided into two gingival crescent and body. In this index intensity and area measured on gingival crescent and body separately and also in combination by multiplying intensity and area. An index for the entire mouth is determined by dividing the total score by the number surfaces examined
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT01902095
|Study Director:||Ayyaz A Khan, PhD||University of the Punjab|