A Pilot Study of Positive Affect Training
|ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01853098|
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : May 14, 2013
Last Update Posted : January 18, 2018
|Condition or disease||Intervention/treatment||Phase|
|Affect (Mental Function) Compassion||Behavioral: Positive Affect Training (PAT)||Not Applicable|
Loving-kindness meditation (LKM) and mindfulness meditation, in which PAT is rooted, are derived from Buddhist practices that have been empirically shown to have applications in improving mental health. Throughout the 1990s and early 2000s, mindfulness based CBT was shown to decrease stress, negative affect, and chronic pain in both psychiatric and non-psychiatric subjects. Mindfulness-based therapy has since been shown to be effective for treating mood and anxiety disorders. Only recently has LKM been examined as an intervention for affective symptoms. This meditation practice seems to be particularly suited for reducing negative affect while also enhancing positive affect in individuals who show emotional dysregulation, such as people with dysthymic disorder. This notion is supported by experimental studies suggesting that LKM decreases anxiety and stress, positively influences emotional responses to neutral stimuli, and promotes positive emotions such as trust, love, hope, and compassion. Dr. Fredrickson, a prominent researcher and social psychologist who is the foremost expert in LKM will serve as an outside consultant for the development of the protocol. She is not listed as an official collaborator because she will not be in direct contact with the participant data that the investigators will collect.
The intervention the investigators plan to develop, Positive Affect Training (PAT), combines mindfulness and LKM, with a strong emphasis on the latter. The investigators will adopt strategies that have been described in a previous LKM protocol for trauma victims. The investigators contacted Dr. Kearney who shared his manual with us. Given the impressive effect LKM seems to have on generating positive, and attenuating negative affect in experimental studies, the investigators plan to test PAT as a method of improving positive affect. The current study aims to test the initial efficacy of PAT in individuals who report experiencing a low mood. The investigators hypothesize significant improvement in subjects' self-reported ratings of negative and positive affect as a result of the intervention.
|Study Type :||Interventional (Clinical Trial)|
|Actual Enrollment :||10 participants|
|Intervention Model:||Single Group Assignment|
|Masking:||None (Open Label)|
|Official Title:||Effect of a Novel Mindfulness Based Loving Kindness Meditation on Positive and Negative Affect|
|Study Start Date :||September 2013|
|Actual Primary Completion Date :||May 2015|
|Actual Study Completion Date :||May 2015|
Experimental: Positive Affect Training (PAT)
The intervention will be conducted in groups with 6-8 participants and 2 facilitators/therapists per group. The groups will meet once a week for 12 successive weeks and each session will be approximately 60 minutes long.
Behavioral: Positive Affect Training (PAT)
During the PAT sessions, the participants will be taught the basics of mindfulness and how to concentrate their thoughts and feelings on the present moment in a non-judgmental fashion. As the therapy sessions continue, participants will be introduced to basic loving-kindness meditation (LKM). They will be taught to identify and focus the positive feelings they have when they are around someone or something they care about, and transfer these feelings first to themselves, then to a close friend, to a neutral individual, to people whom they dislike, and finally to all living beings.
- Change from Baseline in Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS) [ Time Frame: 12 weeks ]
- Change from Baseline in Self-Compassion Scale (SCS) [ Time Frame: 12 weeks ]
- Change from Baseline in Beck Anxiety and Depression Scale (BDI) [ Time Frame: 12 weeks ]
- Change from Baseline in Compassionate Love Scale [ Time Frame: 12 weeks ]
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT01853098
|United States, Massachusetts|
|Center for Anxiety and Related Disorders at Boston University|
|Boston, Massachusetts, United States, 02215|
|Principal Investigator:||Stefan G. Hofmann, Ph.D.||Boston University, Psychology Department|