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Multi-Site Evaluation of Second Step (SSTP)

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT01792167
Recruitment Status : Unknown
Verified March 2014 by Dorothy Espelage, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
Recruitment status was:  Active, not recruiting
First Posted : February 15, 2013
Last Update Posted : March 18, 2014
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Dorothy Espelage, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Brief Summary:
This study is a large-scale, randomized longitudinal evaluation of Second Step: Student Success Through Prevention (Second Step - SSTP), a middle school intervention (Committee for Children, 2008), which targets the shared underlying risk and protective factors for bullying, sexual harassment, and dating aggression. This program is unique in its emphasis on the role of peer group norms, attitudes, and behavior in the initiation and maintenance of bullying and other forms of violence. Because of this, this investigation will involve a direct test via social network analysis the extent to which peer norms or shifts in peer attitudes are impacted by the intervention. Bullying is conceptualized as including verbal, physical, relational, and cyber-aggression. Sexual violence is conceptualized as including sexual harassment, sexual coercion in dating relationships, and homophobic teasing. Thirty-six schools were drawn from four school districts in Illinois and one large district in Wichita, Kansas and randomly assigned to Second Step - SSTP or a control condition. Second Step -SSTP program draws from the risk/protective factors model and social-cognitive theories of aggression. Lessons focus on the outcomes of bullying, relational aggression, sexual harassment, dating relationships, and substance use. Risk factors targeted include inappropriate classroom behavior, favorable attitudes toward aggression and substance abuse, deviant peer affiliation, peer rejection, and impulsiveness are targeted as risk factors. Targeted protective factors include empathy, problem-solving skills, school connectedness, assertiveness and adoption of conventional norms. The P3R: Stories of Us - Bullying program, composed of a series of film-based education will be used in the control schools. All 6th graders at each school will be recruited and followed for the three year study period. Students and teachers will complete self-report and nomination tasks. Growth curve analysis via hierarchical linear modeling (HLM; Bryk & Raudenbush, 1992) will be utilized to assess change in the major dependent variables (bullying, sexual harassment perpetration, dating aggression), structural equation modeling will test for mediators across the study period, and social network analysis will be instrumental in identifying peer norms and attitudes.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Aggression Behavioral: Second Step Curriculum Not Applicable

Detailed Description:
Seven outcome measures were evaluated including bullying perpetration, peer victimization, physical fighting, homophobic name calling (victimization and perpetration), and sexual violence (victimization and perpetration). Given that students in the intervention received only one-year (15 lessons; 50 minutes/week) of the developmentally-sequenced three-year curriculum, it was hypothesized that the strongest intervention effect would be seen for overt physical aggression, followed by more subtle effects for bullying and peer victimization outcomes. Because students were not introduced to concepts of prejudice, bias, and sexual violence (referred to sexual harassment) until the 7th and 8th grade curriculum, it was hypothesized that no significant intervention effects would emerge for these constructs at this point in time.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 4089 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Prevention
Official Title: Multi-site Evaluation of Second Step: Student Success Through Prevention (Second Step - SSTP) in Preventing Bullying and Sexual Violence
Study Start Date : September 2009
Actual Primary Completion Date : June 2013
Estimated Study Completion Date : October 2014

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Second Step
Second Step Curriculum
Behavioral: Second Step Curriculum
social emotional learning program for 6th-8th graders. 15 50 minutes lessons in 6th grade, 13 50 minute lessons in 7th and 8th grade. covers empathy, perspective taking, anger management, impulse control, problem-solving, alcohol and drug prevention, sexual harassment, prejudice, bully prevention, bystander intervention

No Intervention: Stories of Us
Stories of Us was provided to schools

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. aggression perpetration [ Time Frame: pre (fall 2010), three posts (spring 2011, 2012, 2013) ]
    Using University of Illinois Fight Scale (Espelage & Holt, 2001)

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. sexual violence [ Time Frame: pre (fall 2010), 3 posts (spring 2011, 2012, 2013) ]

Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   11 Years to 15 Years   (Child)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Enrolled at one of our participating schools

Exclusion Criteria:

  • None

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT01792167

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United States, Illinois
University of Illinois, Champaign, Dept of Educational Psychology
Champaign, Illinois, United States, 61820
Sponsors and Collaborators
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
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Principal Investigator: Dorothy L Espelage, Ph.D. University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
Additional Information:
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Responsible Party: Dorothy Espelage, Professor, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Identifier: NCT01792167    
Other Study ID Numbers: 1U01CE001677 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
UIUC 10147 ( Other Identifier: Institutional Review Board )
First Posted: February 15, 2013    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: March 18, 2014
Last Verified: March 2014
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Behavioral Symptoms