A Comparison of the Perception of a Needle Injection Pain Between Cancer Patients Receiving Opioid Therapy Versus Opioid-naive Patients
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Opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH) is most broadly defined as a state of nociceptive sensitization caused by exposure to opioids. In humans, the evidence of OIH is strong but conflicting. Previous clinical studies mostly used experimental or non-standardized surgical stimuli to assess OIH. We therefore sought to certify a presence of OIH using a standardized, clinical pain stimuli in cancer patients receiving opioid therapy and opioid-naive patients.
Post-injection pain intensity [ Time Frame: 1 min after lidocaine anesthetic injection ]
The local anesthetic injection before main procedure was performed by one pain physician using a 25-gauge needle and 1 ml of 1% lidocaine to raise a small skin wheel. Before and immediately following the injection, patients were asked to rate injection-specific pain and unpleasantness intensity on a 0 to 10 numerical rating scale (NRS).
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Layout table for eligibility information
Ages Eligible for Study:
20 Years to 80 Years (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:
patient whom receiving opioid treatment, any acute or chronic pain condition amenable to a diagnostic/therapeutic nerve block or neuromodulation,and a regular analgesic regimen.
patient who has any change in opioid or other analgesic medications less than 14 days prior to the scheduled procedure
an inability to understand English or adequately respond to the relevant questions