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Effects of Lipids on Gastric Emptying, Satiety Hormones, and Appetite in Severe Overweight

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT01681459
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : September 10, 2012
Last Update Posted : February 19, 2016
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Jan Lysgaard Madsen, Hvidovre University Hospital

Brief Summary:
In lean subjects, free fatty acid (FFA) promotes gut hormone release, delays gastric emptying, and reduces appetite and energy intake more than an isocaloric load of triglyceride (TG). In obesity, the gastrointestinal sensitivity to food components may be reduced. In this study, the investigators compare the effects of the FFA oleic acid and the TG olive oil on gut hormone secretion, gastric emptying, appetite sensation, and subsequent energy intake in lean and severely obese subjects.

Condition or disease
Effects of Lipids on Gastric Emptying Effects of Lipids on Satiety Hormones Effects of Lipids on Appetite

Detailed Description:

Nutritional lipid within the lumen of small intestine causes a range of physiological responses that suppress appetite and reduce energy intake. Thus, intestinal fat promotes the release of gastrointestinal hormones such as cholecystokinin (CCK), peptide-YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) that modulate gastrointestinal motility and are important for appetite regulation and food consumption.

The effect of ingested fat on gut hormone secretion is highly dependent on the lipolysis of triglycerides (TGs) into free fatty acids (FFAs). It has been demonstrated that adding a lipase inhibitor (tetrahydrolipstatin) to a pure fat meal accelerates gastric emptying and reduces CCK release. Furthermore, administration of tetrahydrolipstatin with an intraduodenal infusion of TG attenuates gastric relaxation and antro-pyloro-duodenal motility and reduces the release of CCK, PYY, and GLP-1 compared to TG alone. Finally, intragastric administration of FFA delays gastric emptying and augments the release of CCK and PYY compared to an isocaloric administration of TG. Hence, the presence of FFAs more than TGs within the small intestine seem to play a pivotal role in the regulation of appetite and energy intake.

Whereas acute intake of FFA represents a potent stimulus for suppression of appetite and energy intake, epidemiological evidence relates long-term high dietary fat intake with obesity and it is known that obese individuals prefer food with high fat content. The mechanisms behind this paradox remain unclear. However, sustained high fat-diet may change gastromotor responses and gut hormonal release to a dietary load of lipids. Moreover intraduodenal sensitivity to FFA (oleic acid) was recently reported to be reduced in obese subjects. The reduced appetite and energy intake after FFAs compared to TGs may, therefore, not apply to obese subjects.

The aims of this study are to evaluate gastric emptying, gut hormone secretion, appetite sensation, and energy intake after isocaloric gastric administration of FFA (oleic acid) and TG (olive oil) in lean and severely obese subjects.

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Study Type : Observational
Actual Enrollment : 20 participants
Observational Model: Case Control
Time Perspective: Prospective
Official Title: Effects of Lipids on Gastric Emptying, Satiety Hormones, and Appetite in Severe Overweight
Study Start Date : January 2012
Actual Primary Completion Date : December 2014
Actual Study Completion Date : January 2015

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

MedlinePlus related topics: Hormones

Biospecimen Retention:   Samples Without DNA

Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   25 Years to 65 Years   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   Male
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes
Sampling Method:   Non-Probability Sample
Study Population
10 lean subjects and 10 severely obese subjects

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Lean subjects: BMI 20-25
  • Severely obese subjects: BMI > 50

Exclusion Criteria:

-Gastrointestinal symptoms

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT01681459

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Hvidovre Hospital
Hvidovre, Denmark, DK-2650
Sponsors and Collaborators
Hvidovre University Hospital

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Responsible Party: Jan Lysgaard Madsen, Chief Physician, MD, DMSci, Hvidovre University Hospital Identifier: NCT01681459     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: H-4-2011-060
First Posted: September 10, 2012    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: February 19, 2016
Last Verified: February 2016

Keywords provided by Jan Lysgaard Madsen, Hvidovre University Hospital:
Free fatty acid
Gastric emptying
Satiety hormones
Severe obesity

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Body Weight
Signs and Symptoms
Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists
Physiological Effects of Drugs