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Stop Hypernatremia, Use Metolazone, for Aggressive, Controlled, Effective Diuresis (SHUM)

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT01617798
Recruitment Status : Withdrawn (Investigator departed organization)
First Posted : June 12, 2012
Last Update Posted : June 6, 2019
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Jeffrey Gold, Oregon Health and Science University

Brief Summary:
Patients who are on mechanical ventilation in an intensive care unit often require diursis as part of their pre-extubation regimen. The drug of choice for diuresis has traditionally been furosemide. However, this drug cause hypernatremia (a rise in serum sodium) in a significant proportion of patients. Hypernatremia is traditionally treated by providing free water supplementation to the patient. This strategy creates a vicious and unproductive cycle of giving free water, and then diuresing it off. We propose a strategy for breaking this cycle by using a second diuretic-- metolazone-- which has a tendency to rid the body of more sodium, thereby minimizing hypernatremia.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Respiratory Failure Volume Overload Hypernatremia Drug: Supplemental metolazone diuresis Drug: Placebo Comparator: Control-- furosemide (lasix) only Not Applicable

Detailed Description:

Mechanical ventilation is a mainstay of Intensive Care. Weaning from mechanical ventilation remains a significant issue in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) care worldwide. It is well established that a strategy of diuresis with negative fluid balance shortens the duration of mechanical ventilation in both acute lung injury and cardiogenic pulmonary edema patients. Despite publication of at least one formalized but complex evidence-based conservative fluid strategy, there is no practical, uniformly implemented protocol for setting or achieving volume status targets. The default approach at many hospitals involves using ad hoc doses (either intermittent or continuous) of a loop diuretic (usually furosemide) with instructions to monitor fluid balance and follow electrolytes in an attempt to reach arbitrary target volume diuresis. Moreover, there are barriers to achieving any particular target, including pre-existing renal failure/diuretic resistance, diuretic-induced creatinine elevation, acquired diuretic resistance, hypotension from volume loss, and electrolyte derangements including hypokalemia and hypernatremia. Strategies exist for preventing or treating the above complications but there is presently no accepted standard for preventing or treating diuretic-induced hypernatremia. In fact, the standard current intervention is to replace the free water deficit that may be induced by the loop diuretic, while simultaneously perpetuating the free water deficit by continuing to administer the causative loop diuretic. This approach is circular and does not effectuate the desired negative fluid balance. We will address the lack of an accepted prevention strategy using a randomized controlled clinical trial in ICU patients with the following specific aims:

  1. Conduct a randomized, pilot trial of standard versus metolazone supplemented diuresis in ICU patients with the primary outcome of improved negative fluid balance.
  2. Assess secondary outcomes including time to extubation, exacerbation of renal failure, and incidence of electrolyte derrangements in the treatment and control arms.
  3. Track whether initial hypernatremia within the control group is a risk factor for poor diuresis with furosemide, and whether it delays extubation.

The anticipated benefits of our proposed intervention involve fundamental ICU and patient care quality measures: avoiding the pitfalls of hypernatremia and diuretic resistance should lead to more effective diuresis, which should in turn lead to a more negative fluid balance, earlier liberation from the ventilator, and a shorter length of stay in the ICU.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 0 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Stop Hypernatremia, Use Metolazone for Aggressive, Controlled, Effective Diuresis
Study Start Date : June 2012
Estimated Primary Completion Date : June 2013
Estimated Study Completion Date : June 2013

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

Arm Intervention/treatment
Placebo Comparator: Control-- furosemide (lasix) only

Control arm receives standard of care diuresis with furosemide(lasix)only. The treatment team will decide the dosing of furosemide (lasix).

No actual placebo is administered.

Drug: Placebo Comparator: Control-- furosemide (lasix) only
Control arm will receive furosemide as monotherapy for diuresis
Other Name: furosemide, lasix, metolazone

Active Comparator: Study Arm
Study arm receives evolving standard of care diuresis with furosemide and metolazone.
Drug: Supplemental metolazone diuresis
Patients in the Study Arm will receive supplemental diuresis with metolazone 2.5 mg per dobhoff tube twice daily, in addition to furosemide as the primary team sees fit.
Other Name: furosemide, lasix

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Fluid balance [ Time Frame: 24, 36, 48, and 72 hours after either protocol is initiated ]
    Differences in fluid balance (total net liters negative from the time diuresis is initiated) between the study group and control group at the following intervals: 24, 36, 48, and 72 hours after either protocol is initiated.

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Serum sodium [ Time Frame: Continuous for 72 hours ]
    Number patients whose Na remains below 145 (meq/L) during the period of diuresis; versus the number of patients whose sodium exceeds 145 (meq/L) and require free water replacement.

  2. Hyponatremia [ Time Frame: Continuous for up to 72 hours ]
    Number of patients who develop hyponatremia (Na < 136 meq/L)

  3. Time to extubation [ Time Frame: Unitl the patient is actually extubated, undergoes tracheostomy, or expires. ]
    Time in hours from initiation of protocol to extubation (difference between study group and control group

  4. Acute Kidney Injury [ Time Frame: Continuous for the first 72 hours ]
    Number of patients who develop acute kidney injury (increase in creatinine by more than 25%)

Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   Child, Adult, Older Adult
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  • ICU patients who are intubated and slated for diuresis in anticipation of extubation.
  • Patients must be hypernatremic (Na > 140 mEq/L) at the time diuresis is initiated or become hypernatremic over the course of receiving loop diuretics in anticipation of extubation.
  • GFR > 30 ml/min [as calculated by the MedCalc MDRD formula {GFR = 170 x PCr - 0.999 x Age - 0.176 x BUN - 0.170 x Albumin0.318 x 0.762 (for women) x 1.180 (for blacks)} ]

Exclusion Criteria:

  • History of allergy to furosemide or any thiazide diuretic
  • Inability to place enteral access
  • Moribund status

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT01617798

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United States, Oregon
Oregon Health Sciences University
Portland, Oregon, United States, 97239
Sponsors and Collaborators
Oregon Health and Science University
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Principal Investigator: David Steiger, JD MD Oregon Health and Science University
Principal Investigator: Dan Hagg, MS MD Oregon Health and Science University

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Responsible Party: Jeffrey Gold, Professor of Medicine, Oregon Health and Science University Identifier: NCT01617798    
Other Study ID Numbers: IRB00007857
First Posted: June 12, 2012    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: June 6, 2019
Last Verified: June 2019
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Respiratory Insufficiency
Respiration Disorders
Respiratory Tract Diseases
Water-Electrolyte Imbalance
Metabolic Diseases
Natriuretic Agents
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Sodium Potassium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors
Membrane Transport Modulators
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Antihypertensive Agents
Sodium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors