Botulinum Toxin A (Botox) in Tissue Expander Breast Reconstruction
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|ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01591746|
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : May 4, 2012
Results First Posted : October 10, 2019
Last Update Posted : October 10, 2019
Each year, the number of breast cancer survivors who choose post-mastectomy breast reconstruction keeps rising. Among women who elect to pursue breast reconstruction, approximately 75% will choose prosthetic breast reconstruction. Implant-based breast reconstruction is frequently achieved in two-stages. The first stage consists of the placement of a tissue expander after mastectomy. This is followed by a period of biweekly tissue expansions that can last several months. In the second stage, the tissue expander is removed in a surgical procedure and replaced with a permanent breast implant. Tissue expansion is a well-established breast reconstruction technique characterized by high success rates and high patient satisfaction. Despite the well-recognized advantages of this successful breast reconstruction technique, the subpectoral placement of a tissue expander is associated with significant pain and discomfort in the immediate post-operative period and during the phase of tissue expansion. Pectoralis major muscle spasm is a frequently reported problem during tissue expansion. Legeby et al. recently showed that women who underwent prosthetic breast reconstruction had higher pain scores and took more analgesics that those who did not choose post-mastectomy reconstruction.
In the past 10 years, publications on the use of botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) for pain relief in a wide array of clinical conditions have increased tremendously. BTX-A is one of the neurotoxins produced by Clostridium botulinum bacteria. By reversibly inhibiting neurotransmitter release, BTX-A has both analgesic and paralytic properties. The analgesic action of BTX-A was initially thought to be related to its effects on muscular contraction. However, a recent in vitro study of embryonic rat dorsal neurons did confirm that BTX-A inhibits release of substance P, a neurotransmitter associated with pain and inflammatory reactions. The presence of analgesic properties of BTX-A is increasingly supported by several clinical observations: pain relief with BTX-A injections has been reported for migraine headaches, chronic pelvic, chronic tennis elbow, and post-operative pain control for lower limb lengthening correction, among others.
This aspect has never been studied in breast cancer survivors who elect to pursue breast reconstruction with tissue expanders. Furthermore, physical function outcomes are important to consider with BTX-A use because the link between temporary muscle paralysis and improvements in participation in daily activities is not a given.
The investigators propose to complete a double-blinded prospective randomized controlled trial of women undergoing unilateral and bilateral mastectomies with immediate placement of tissue expanders, to establish the efficacy and safety of BTX-A in alleviating pain and in improving physical well-being during the expansion period.
|Condition or disease||Intervention/treatment||Phase|
|Breast Cancer Pain, Postoperative BRCA1 Mutation BRCA2 Mutation Breast Diseases Neoplasms||Drug: Botulinum Toxin Type A Drug: Placebo||Phase 3|
|Study Type :||Interventional (Clinical Trial)|
|Actual Enrollment :||131 participants|
|Intervention Model:||Parallel Assignment|
|Masking:||Quadruple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)|
|Primary Purpose:||Supportive Care|
|Official Title:||Botulinum Toxin A in Tissue Expander Breast Reconstruction: A Double-Blinded Randomized Controlled Trial|
|Actual Study Start Date :||August 2012|
|Actual Primary Completion Date :||July 18, 2017|
|Actual Study Completion Date :||July 18, 2017|
Experimental: Group A - Botulinum Toxin Type A
100 Units of Botulinum toxin A diluted in 5 mL 0.9% Sodium Chloride (NaCl) in the pectoralis major muscle in each operated breast
Drug: Botulinum Toxin Type A
Other Name: BOTOX
Placebo Comparator: Group B - Placebo
5 mL 0.9% NaCl injection to the pectoralis major muscle in each operated breast
5 mL 0.9% NaCl solution to mimic Botulinum Toxin Type A
Other Name: Sodium chloride solution
- Change From Baseline in Average Pain Scores Using a Numeric Pain Intensity Scale [ Time Frame: preoperative visit, first postoperative visit (1-2 weeks post surgery) ]The numeric pain intensity scale (NPIS) will be completed at the preoperative visit and again at the first postoperative visit. The NPIS is a visual analog scale (VAS) commonly used to assess clinical pain. Subjects are asked to rate their pain on a scale from 0 to 10, where 0 is no pain and 10 is the worst pain imaginable.
- Physical Well-Being Using the BREAST-Q, Reconstruction Module [ Time Frame: first post-operative visit (1-2 weeks post surgery) ]The Physical Well-Being scale of the BREAST-Q, Reconstruction module, will be used for this purpose. The BREAST-Q is a validated patient-reported outcome measure to accurately assess quality of life and patient satisfaction. The Reconstruction module Physical Well-Being scale has questions on the function and participation in activities before and after breast reconstruction. For this study, subjects were asked to answer 16 questions on how often they experienced each symptom, using score of 1 to 5, where 1 was none of the time and 5 was very often. Answers from these questions were combined to provide a total physical well-being score (for a total possible range of 16-80) for each patient at each visit. Lower scores reflected fewer symptoms and higher satisfaction where higher scores reflected more symptoms and less satisfaction.
- Initial Intraoperative Fill Volume in Milliliters (mL) [ Time Frame: Single intra-operative measurement at first surgery ]The amount of initial intraoperative fill volume in milliliters (mL) in the tissue expander at the time of surgery divided by the manufacturers recommended total tissue expander volume will be measured. Each breast will be measured separately.
- Number of Tissue Expansion Visits [ Time Frame: up to 24 weeks post-operatively ]The total number of tissue expansion visits completed post-operatively.
- Total Volume of Tissue Expansion [ Time Frame: Up to 24 weeks post-operatively ]Measurement of total expansion volume in milliliters (mL).
- Rate of Reconstruction Failure [ Time Frame: 6 months after first surgery ]The rate of reconstruction failure will be measured by the number of subjects who have tissue expander removal.
To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT01591746
|United States, Minnesota|
|Rochester, Minnesota, United States, 55905|
|Principal Investigator:||Valerie Lemaine, MD||Mayo Clinic|