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Seroepidemiology of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infection in Hualien, Taiwan

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT01163123
Recruitment Status : Unknown
Verified July 2010 by Mennonite Christian Hospital.
Recruitment status was:  Enrolling by invitation
First Posted : July 15, 2010
Last Update Posted : July 16, 2010
Information provided by:
Mennonite Christian Hospital

Brief Summary:
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is one of important zoonotic infectious diseases in Taiwan. JE caused by Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) which transmitted by Culex tritaeniorhynchus and used swine as amplifying host. Infections leading to overt encephalitis are estimated to be 1 in 1000 cases. Among JE confirmed cases, approximately 25 percent of cases die and 50 percent of the survivals develop permanent neurologic and/or psychiatric sequelae. JEV circulated in Taiwan are belonged to genotype III and the vaccine strain selected from same genotype. Genotype I JEV was first detected in northern Taiwan in 2008 by CDC, and the same genotype JEV were detected in mosquito collected in central Taiwan by our group. In order to study the genotypic shift of JEV in Taiwan areas, and the effects of the replacement of genotype on vaccine, we will conduct the JEV seroepidemiology in Hualien county which was the highest incidence of JEV in Taiwan. The aims of this study were: (1) study the circulating of genotype I JEV in Hualien county; (2) determine the virulence of genotype I JEV in human; (3) differential diagnosis of JEV genotype I or III infection among confirmed cases; (4) measure the cross neutralizing activity, after immunized with genotype III JEV vaccine, against genotype I JEV; (5) determine the age-specific seroprevalence of JEV antibody; (6) estimate the annual risk of infection for JEV.

Condition or disease
Japanese Encephalitis

Detailed Description:

According to CDC Taiwan epidemiology data, Hualien county had 6 confirmed JEV infection patients in 2009 witch was the highest county in Taiwan. Since mass vaccination was arranged since 45 years ago in Taiwan, most of the JEV infection was happened on the elderly, possible due to aging and immune compromised. However, from Mennonite Christian Hospital and CDC records, most of the confirmed JEV patients in Hualien county were aboriginal people. The youngest patient in 2009 is around 30-year-old who lived in the mountain side aboriginal village. Whether aboriginal people are at more risk for JEV infection or Genotype I JEV was appeared in Hualien with more virulent, resistent to vaccine protection is unknown.

In order to understand the risk of JEV infection and environmental (mosquito, swine) surveillance, we had arranged a small cohort study in 2 villages. The 2 villages are located at middle Hualien with direct distance around 20 KM between each other. Both villages had several pig farms and mosquito numbers in summer were very high. Both villages had document JEV infection resident in past 2 years. The first village was near the river ready to entrance the sea (wetlands) and many migrate birds appeared in the summer every year. The residence were mostly Han people. The seconds village was located very closed to the central mountain Taiwan and the residence were almost aboriginal people.

In this year 2010, we plan to do the following research:

  1. Collect mosquito in 2 villages since May.2010 with RT-PCT method to identify the JEV genotype
  2. Collect sera from swine in 2 villages to identify the JEV genotype
  3. Collect sera from 312 residency in 2 villages at May and Sep 2010 to detect sub-clinical infection rate. ( estimated sub-clinical infection rate = 2.5%)
  4. Identify the JEV from new diagnosed patient in 2010.

Since virus was hardly detected by RT-PCR or virus isolation from JEV infected patient, the virus identified from mosquito or swine in the nearby may show indirect evidence of the JEV genotype.

After comparing the 2 sera from the same person during the summer in these 2 villages, we can identify:

  1. The subclinical infection rate of the JEV (genotype I or III, depends on JEV isolated from mosquito)
  2. Whether aboriginal people near the central mountains are at more risk then people near the wetlands.

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Study Type : Observational
Estimated Enrollment : 312 participants
Observational Model: Cohort
Time Perspective: Prospective
Official Title: Seroepidemiology of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infection in Hualien, Taiwan
Study Start Date : May 2010
Estimated Primary Completion Date : December 2010
Estimated Study Completion Date : December 2010

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

MedlinePlus related topics: Encephalitis

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Measure the subclinical infection rate in the cohort population during the summer ( May 2010 ~ Sep 2010) [ Time Frame: May 2010 - Oct 2010 ]

    We exam 2 sera from volunteer collected seperately on May and October 2010 to estimate the subclinical infection rate. Subclinical infection rate was defined by one of the following

    1. 4 times increased in IgG titer
    2. Appearance of IgM in the second sera
    3. Apperance of Anti-NS1 antibody in the second sera

Biospecimen Retention:   Samples Without DNA
The sera from volunteer was collected to detect IgG, IgM and anti-NS1 antibody against Japanese encephalitis virus

Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 85 Years   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes
Sampling Method:   Non-Probability Sample
Study Population
Volunteers were recruited from 2 villages in Hualien county Taiwan. There were at least one patient who had confirmed diagnosis of Japanese virus encephalitis in past 2 years. Many pig farms were located in these 2 villages also. The volunteers are either living or working in the villages during 2010 summer. We had blood test for IgM, IgG for Japanese virus encephalitis before and after the summer season to identify possible subclinical infection. At the same time, mosquito were analyzed by RT-PCR periodically to identify possible virus in the community.

Inclusion Criteria:

  1. Living in the specific 2 villages in Hualien county
  2. Aged 18-85

Exclusion Criteria:

1. Difficulty to have blood test due to coagulopathy or small blood vessels

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT01163123

Sponsors and Collaborators
Mennonite Christian Hospital
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Study Director: ChenChang Shih
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Responsible Party: Sheng-Hsuan Chen, Mennonite Christian Hospital Identifier: NCT01163123    
Other Study ID Numbers: D9902
First Posted: July 15, 2010    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: July 16, 2010
Last Verified: July 2010
Keywords provided by Mennonite Christian Hospital:
Subclinical infection of Japanese encephalitis virus
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Virus Diseases
Encephalitis, Japanese
Brain Diseases
Central Nervous System Diseases
Nervous System Diseases
Encephalitis, Arbovirus
Arbovirus Infections
Encephalitis, Viral
Central Nervous System Viral Diseases
RNA Virus Infections
Flavivirus Infections
Flaviviridae Infections
Infectious Encephalitis
Central Nervous System Infections