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Study of Vitamin D for Premenopausal Women at High Risk for Breast Cancer

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT00976339
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : September 14, 2009
Results First Posted : June 15, 2016
Last Update Posted : September 29, 2017
Prevent Cancer Foundation
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Katherine D. Crew, Columbia University

Brief Summary:
This proposal is for a pilot study of 20 premenopausal women at high risk for breast cancer development who will receive high dose vitamin D3, cholecalciferol 20,000 IU (2 capsules) weekly, or 30,000 IU (3 capsules) weekly, for 1 year. The primary objective of this study is to determine the feasibility of a 1-year intervention of vitamin D in this study population. Secondary objectives include evaluating the biologic effects of vitamin D supplementation on blood based and image-based biomarkers.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Breast Cancer Drug: Cholecalciferol Phase 1

Detailed Description:

Vitamin D has diverse biological effects relevant to carcinogenesis, including known cross-talk between the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling pathways. Based upon observational data, women with serum 25(OH) D levels greater than 40-50 ng/ml had a 50% lower risk of breast cancer compared to women with vitamin D deficiency.

Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin which is produced in the body and may come from food sources. Epidemiologic studies suggest that vitamin D may influence breast cancer development, which has resulted in increased interest in the use of vitamin D for the treatment and prevention of breast cancer. Numerous experimental studies have shown that vitamin D compounds have anti-carcinogenic properties against breast cancer. Given the epidemiologic data and the extensive preclinical evidence of the anti-tumor effects of vitamin D, it is therefore reasonable to test the biological effects of high-dose vitamin D in early phase clinical trials. The investigators hypothesize that vitamin D3, cholecalciferol, will modulate biomarkers of breast cancer risk.

The relationship between vitamin D status and mammographic density (MD), a strong predictor of breast cancer risk, remains unclear [8]. MD refers to the relative proportions of radiolucent fat and radiodense epithelial and stromal tissue and may serve as a useful intermediate biomarker for breast cancer risk assessment in investigations of potential chemopreventive agents. Cross-sectional studies evaluating the association between vitamin D intake and MD observed an inverse association among premenopausal women, particularly with high serum IGF-1 and low serum IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3). However, there is limited data on the biologic effects of vitamin D supplementation for breast cancer prevention in human intervention trials.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 20 participants
Allocation: Non-Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Prevention
Official Title: Pilot Biomarker Modulation Study of Vitamin D in Premenopausal Women at High Risk for Breast Cancer
Study Start Date : September 2007
Actual Primary Completion Date : December 2013
Actual Study Completion Date : December 2013

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Cholecalciferol 20,000 IU
Participants will receive Cholecalciferol 20,000 IU (2 capsules) weekly for one year.
Drug: Cholecalciferol

Cholecalciferol is a vitamin D3. Vitamin D is important for the absorption of calcium from the stomach and for the functioning of calcium in the body. Cholecalciferol is used to treat or prevent many conditions caused by a lack of vitamin D.

Cholecalciferol will be available in gel capsule form at 10,000 IU (0.25 mg cholecalciferol) each.

Other Name: Vitamin D3

Experimental: Cholecalciferol 30,000 IU
Participants will receive Cholecalciferol 30,000 IU (3 capsules) weekly for one year.
Drug: Cholecalciferol

Cholecalciferol is a vitamin D3. Vitamin D is important for the absorption of calcium from the stomach and for the functioning of calcium in the body. Cholecalciferol is used to treat or prevent many conditions caused by a lack of vitamin D.

Cholecalciferol will be available in gel capsule form at 10,000 IU (0.25 mg cholecalciferol) each.

Other Name: Vitamin D3

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Number of Participants That Successfully Completed the 1-year Intervention [ Time Frame: 1 year ]

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Change in Mammographic Breast Density [ Time Frame: 1 year ]

Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.

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Ages Eligible for Study:   21 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   Female
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Elevated risk of breast cancer defined as having at least one of the following: (1) Predicted 5-year modified Gail model risk of 1.7% or greater, (2) Lobular carcinoma in situ, (3) Known BRCA1 or BRCA2 deleterious mutation carrier, (4) Prior history of ductal carcinoma in situ, if no current tamoxifen use or prior radiation to the contralateral breast.
  • Age 21 years or older.
  • Premenopausal defined as < 6 months since the last menstrual period, no prior bilateral oophorectomy, not on estrogen replacement, and serum Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) values consistent with institutional normal values for the premenopausal state.
  • Normal breast exam and mammogram (BIRADS score of 1 or 2).
  • Baseline mammographic density ≥25% as assessed qualitatively by the mammographer (25-50% = "scattered fibroglandular densities"; >50-75% = "heterogeneously dense breasts"; >75% = "extremely dense breasts").
  • Baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D <32 ng/ml.
  • Prior tamoxifen use is allowed provided treatment is discontinued at least 28 days prior to enrollment.
  • Willingness to allow submission of core needle breast biopsy for pathology review and collection of blood for biomarker analysis and banking.
  • At least one breast available for imaging and biopsy.
  • Willingness to not take calcium or vitamin D supplements during the one year intervention, due to the potential risk of hypercalcemia/hypercalciuria with high dose vitamin D. Premenopausal women who need to take calcium supplementation for any medical condition will be excluded from the study. Dietary restrictions on calcium intake may be imposed if the subject is found to have borderline high serum or urine levels of calcium during the study intervention and a list of dietary sources of calcium will be provided.
  • Normal serum calcium.
  • No history of kidney stones.
  • Adequate renal and hepatic function: serum creatinine, bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase < 2.0 x the institutional upper limit of normal (IULN).
  • No hypersensitivity reactions to vitamin D.
  • Performance status of 0 or 1.
  • Not pregnant or nursing.
  • Agree to use effective contraception, hormone-based oral contraceptives allowed but switching birth control methods is discouraged while on-study.
  • No significant medical or psychiatric condition that would preclude study completion.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Not meeting one or any of inclusion criteria

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT00976339

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United States, New York
Columbia University Medical Center Herbert Irving Cancer Center
New York, New York, United States, 10032
Sponsors and Collaborators
Katherine D. Crew
Prevent Cancer Foundation
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Principal Investigator: Katherine Crew, MD Columbia University
Hershman, D. L., McMahon, D., Irani, D., Cucchiara, G., Crew, K. D., Raptis, G., and Shane, E. High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in premenopausal women with early-stage breast cancer. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol, pp. Abst #8568. Atlanta, 2006.
Chlebowski, R. T., Johnson, K. C., Kooperberg, C., Hubbell, A., Lane, D., O'Sullivan, M., Cummings, S., Rohan, T., Khandekar, J., and Investigators, T. W. s. H. I. The Women's Health Initiative randomized trial of calcium plus vitamin D: effects on breast cancer and arthralgias. Proceedings of the American Society of Clinical Oncology 24, pp. LBA6. Atlanta, 2006.

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Responsible Party: Katherine D. Crew, Florence Irving Assistant Professor of Medicine and Assistant Professor of Epidemiology, Columbia University Identifier: NCT00976339    
Other Study ID Numbers: AAAC3089
First Posted: September 14, 2009    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: June 15, 2016
Last Update Posted: September 29, 2017
Last Verified: August 2017
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: Undecided

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Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: Yes
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No
Keywords provided by Katherine D. Crew, Columbia University:
Breast cancer
Vitamin D
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Breast Neoplasms
Neoplasms by Site
Breast Diseases
Skin Diseases
Vitamin D
Growth Substances
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Bone Density Conservation Agents
Calcium-Regulating Hormones and Agents