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Telephone Counseling and the Distribution of Nicotine Patches to Smokers

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00851357
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : February 25, 2009
Last Update Posted : November 9, 2017
Sponsor:
Collaborator:
California Department of Health Services
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Shu-Hong Zhu, University of California, San Diego

Brief Summary:

The primary purpose of this study is to determine the effects of distributing free nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) to tobacco quitline callers directly. Specifically, this study aims to:

  1. Test if sending active nicotine patches directly will lead to a higher quit rate, compared to a condition where the quitline assists the smokers to obtain patches by other means (e.g. via their health plans).
  2. Test if sending placebo patches directly will also lead to a higher quit rate.
  3. Test if quitline counseling increases the quit rate when the smokers already receive the nicotine patches.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Smoking Cessation Drug: Nicotine Patch Behavioral: Telephone Counseling Drug: Placebo Other: Self-Help Materials Phase 3

Detailed Description:
Studies have shown that statewide tobacco quitlines can dramatically increase call volume by offering direct mailings of free nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) products. Sending free NRT such as patches to quitline callers, however, often requires a large budget because quitlines have a large number of smokers calling for help each year. A strong rationale is needed for state funding agencies to pay for the patches, which are generally considered the responsibility of health plans. This study will contrast the condition of sending nicotine patches directly from the quitline with a condition where the quitline assists smokers to obtain patches by other means, primarily through their health plans. The study aims to demonstrate that sending patches immediately after smokers call the quitline has a motivational effect that will lead to a higher quit rate than if smokers have to obtain the patches themselves, even if they are able to obtain them for free. To tease apart how much of the effect of sending patches directly from the quitline is due to the active ingredient in the patches and how much is due to motivational effects, this study adds a placebo condition. We hypothesize that the active patches condition will outperform the placebo condition, and the sending of placebo patches will outperform the condition in which the smokers obtain the nicotine patches themselves. We also hypothesize that counseling has its own effect on quitting above and beyond that of the nicotine patches. This study will supply data that can be used to decide what role nicotine replacement therapy should play in publicly funded tobacco cessation programs. Results will also add to the theoretical understanding of behavior change from which new, effective interventions can spring.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 4200 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Factorial Assignment
Masking: Quadruple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: The Efficacy of Telephone Counseling and the Centralized Distribution of Nicotine Replacement Therapy Through a Smoking Cessation Quitline
Study Start Date : February 2009
Actual Primary Completion Date : October 2010
Actual Study Completion Date : December 2011

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

MedlinePlus related topics: Quitting Smoking

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Active patches and telephone counseling
Proactive Telephone Counseling and 8-weeks of nicotine patches
Drug: Nicotine Patch
Subjects are randomized into 1 of 3 conditions: active, placebo or usual care. Usual care subjects are not mailed patches; however, we facilitate their use by providing a certificate that can be used by the State Medicaid program and some insurance companies to obtain free patches. For those mailed patches directly, we will mail 8 weeks of patches. Dosage depends on the number of cigarettes per day (cpd). Light smokers (6-10 cpd) will receive 6 weeks of 14 mg and 2 weeks of 7 mg patches. Heavy smokers (11+ cpd) will receive 4 weeks of 21 mg, 2 weeks of 14 mg and 2 weeks of 7 mg patches. Placebo patches will have no nicotine, but will be packaged to mimic the active patches.
Other Name: Habitrol

Behavioral: Telephone Counseling

Subjects call the Helpline and are screened for services. Eligible clients who give consent will be randomly assigned to a group.

Subjects will be randomized into one of 2 behavioral conditions: telephone counseling or self-help materials. Telephone counseling includes a comprehensive pre-quit session (to include motivation, planning, and setting of a quit date and discussion of nicotine patch use) plus up to 5 proactive follow-up calls. Telephone counseling has several distinguishing features, namely proactive follow up counseling calls, a manualized protocol, and relapse-sensitive scheduling.


Placebo Comparator: Placebo patches and telephone counseling
Proactive Telephone Counseling and 8-weeks of placebo patches
Behavioral: Telephone Counseling

Subjects call the Helpline and are screened for services. Eligible clients who give consent will be randomly assigned to a group.

Subjects will be randomized into one of 2 behavioral conditions: telephone counseling or self-help materials. Telephone counseling includes a comprehensive pre-quit session (to include motivation, planning, and setting of a quit date and discussion of nicotine patch use) plus up to 5 proactive follow-up calls. Telephone counseling has several distinguishing features, namely proactive follow up counseling calls, a manualized protocol, and relapse-sensitive scheduling.


Drug: Placebo
Placebo nicotine patch
Other Name: Non-nicotine patch

Active Comparator: Telephone counseling
Proactive Telephone Counseling
Behavioral: Telephone Counseling

Subjects call the Helpline and are screened for services. Eligible clients who give consent will be randomly assigned to a group.

Subjects will be randomized into one of 2 behavioral conditions: telephone counseling or self-help materials. Telephone counseling includes a comprehensive pre-quit session (to include motivation, planning, and setting of a quit date and discussion of nicotine patch use) plus up to 5 proactive follow-up calls. Telephone counseling has several distinguishing features, namely proactive follow up counseling calls, a manualized protocol, and relapse-sensitive scheduling.


Active Comparator: Active patches and materials
8-weeks of nicotine patches and materials
Drug: Nicotine Patch
Subjects are randomized into 1 of 3 conditions: active, placebo or usual care. Usual care subjects are not mailed patches; however, we facilitate their use by providing a certificate that can be used by the State Medicaid program and some insurance companies to obtain free patches. For those mailed patches directly, we will mail 8 weeks of patches. Dosage depends on the number of cigarettes per day (cpd). Light smokers (6-10 cpd) will receive 6 weeks of 14 mg and 2 weeks of 7 mg patches. Heavy smokers (11+ cpd) will receive 4 weeks of 21 mg, 2 weeks of 14 mg and 2 weeks of 7 mg patches. Placebo patches will have no nicotine, but will be packaged to mimic the active patches.
Other Name: Habitrol

Other: Self-Help Materials

Subjects call the Helpline and are screened for services. Eligible clients who give consent will be randomly assigned to a group.

Subjects will be randomized into one of 2 behavioral conditions: telephone counseling or self-help materials. Reading materials and written consent will be mailed to all study subjects the next business day.


Active Comparator: Placebo patches and materials
8-weeks placebo patches and materials
Drug: Placebo
Placebo nicotine patch
Other Name: Non-nicotine patch

Other: Self-Help Materials

Subjects call the Helpline and are screened for services. Eligible clients who give consent will be randomly assigned to a group.

Subjects will be randomized into one of 2 behavioral conditions: telephone counseling or self-help materials. Reading materials and written consent will be mailed to all study subjects the next business day.


Active Comparator: Materials
Self-help materials
Other: Self-Help Materials

Subjects call the Helpline and are screened for services. Eligible clients who give consent will be randomly assigned to a group.

Subjects will be randomized into one of 2 behavioral conditions: telephone counseling or self-help materials. Reading materials and written consent will be mailed to all study subjects the next business day.





Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Six-month continuous abstinence from cigarettes [ Time Frame: 7 months post enrollment ]

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Rate of serious quit attempts, 30-day point prevalence [ Time Frame: 2 and 7 months post enrollment ]


Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • >= 18 years old
  • Daily smoker
  • >=6 cigarettes per day
  • Ready to quit within one month
  • First time quitline caller
  • Valid phone number
  • Valid address (no P.O. boxes)
  • California resident
  • Agree to participate in study and evaluation
  • English or Spanish speaking

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Uses other form of tobacco
  • Use of Zyban or Chantix
  • One of the following conditions: Severe allergy to adhesive tape, Arrhythmia, Angina, Heart attack within last year, Stroke within last year, Uncontrolled high blood pressure, Insulin-dependent diabetes, Pregnancy

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT00851357


Locations
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United States, California
University of Californian, San Diego: California Smokers' Helpline
San Diego, California, United States, 92111
Sponsors and Collaborators
University of California, San Diego
California Department of Health Services
Investigators
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Principal Investigator: Shu-Hong Zhu, Ph.D. University of California, San Diego

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Responsible Party: Shu-Hong Zhu, Professor, University of California, San Diego
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00851357     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: CDPH 05-45834
First Posted: February 25, 2009    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: November 9, 2017
Last Verified: November 2017
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: No
Keywords provided by Shu-Hong Zhu, University of California, San Diego:
Nicotine Replacement Therapy
Nicotine Patch
Smoking cessation
Telephone
Tobacco cessation
Counseling
Nicotine
Self-Help
Smoking abstinence
Tobacco Use Disorder
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Nicotine
Ganglionic Stimulants
Autonomic Agents
Peripheral Nervous System Agents
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Nicotinic Agonists
Cholinergic Agonists
Cholinergic Agents
Neurotransmitter Agents
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action