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Single Dose Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Evaluation of Three Different Doses of Zolpidem in Children

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT00494468
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : June 29, 2007
Last Update Posted : June 29, 2007
Information provided by:
Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD)

Brief Summary:
This is a multicenter trial to evaluate the single-dose safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics of Zolpidem in a group of children with sleep disturbances stratified by age and dose.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Insomnia Sleep Disorder Drug: Zolpidem Phase 1 Phase 2

Detailed Description:

The consequences of sleep deprivation to the productivity of the individual and society are extensive. (Most clinicians and patients believe that insomnia becomes a clinical problem requiring therapy when excessive daytime sleepiness impairs cognition and mood, interfering with a patient's performance of functions that require alertness. Chronic sleep deprivation often leads to adverse personal, medical and psychiatric complications, underscoring the common request of patients for treatment by their physician.

With an increasing focus on the problem of sleep deprivation in children of all ages, our appreciation of the scope of the problem is expanding. It is estimated that up to 40 % of infants experience difficulty in settling and frequent nighttime wakings with sleep disturbances including bedtime resistance, delayed onset of sleep, and disruptive night wakings occurring in 25 to 50 % of preschoolers. In school-aged children, parents reported an incidence of bedtime resistance in 15 % of their children.

Very limited data exist describing the pharmacokinetics of zolpidem in pediatrics. Colle and colleagues reported the zolpidem clearance to be 3 times greater in children (n=6) compared to young adults (n=104) though Cmax and AUC values were similar despite a higher zolpidem dose (mg/Kg) in the children. Unfortunately these data raise more questions than they answer regarding zolpidem disposition relative to age and highlight the need to comprehensively determine zolpidem disposition characteristics across a broad age range of pediatric subjects.

In summary, although researchers have been hesitant to include children in drug studies, the data indicate that pediatric sleep disturbance have a negative health impact on children and warrant pharmacologic intervention. Studies to identify the appropriate drug and dosage for children of all ages are essential in addressing this health problem that impacts the child and his/her family.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Enrollment : 63 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Single Dose Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Evaluation of Three Different Zolpidem Doses in Children Ages 2 to 18 Years of Age
Study Start Date : October 2002
Study Completion Date : March 2004

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Safety will be assessed by collection of reported adverse events or findings on physical examination or laboratory assessments.
  2. The primary pharmacokinetic outcome measures for this study will include the Zolpidem Cmax, Tmax, t1/2, AUC (zero to 12 hours and zero to infinity).
  3. Polysomnography, including an electroencephalogram, electrooculogram and electromyogram will be performed on two occasions and represents the primary pharmacodynamic outcome assessment for this study.
  4. Measures will include:
  5. Global sleep parameters: time to sleep, total sleep time, duration of sleep period, sleep efficiency, frequency of shifts between sleep stages and number and duration of awakenings
  6. Sleep Latencies; sleep onset latency, Rapid Eye Movement, (REM) latency, slow-wave sleep,(SWS) latency
  7. Sleep Stages (as absolute and relative proportions thereof: sleep stages I, II, III and IV; sleep stage REM; stage awake
  8. Non-Rem/REM Cycle Parameters: duration of the cycles, REM sleep per cycle, SWS sleep per cycle, number of cycles;
  9. Pharmacodynamic outcomes also will be assessed using activity-based monitoring or actigraphy. This technique has demonstrated ability to measure dose-related effects of hypnotics.

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Secondary outcome pharmacokinetic outcome measures will include estimation of the apparent Zolpidem Vd/F and CI/F.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   2 Years to 18 Years   (Child, Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  1. Male or female between the ages of 2 years and 18 years.
  2. Written consent must be obtained form the parent/legal guardian for all minors. Written assent must be obtained from all minors > 6 years of age.
  3. Female subjects of child-bearing potential must not be pregnant and if females are fertile and sexually active, must have documented a negative urine HCG and assure use of effective contraception acceptable to the investigator (abstinence accepted) during the study period.
  4. Subjects must meet the following criteria for a diagnosis of insomnia as determined by the subject's private physician or study investigator and subject's history:

    • the complaint is significant difficulty (defined by frequency, severity, and/or chronicity) initiating or maintaining sleep;. The problem is viewed problematic by the child and/or caregiver;
    • the sleep disturbance causes clinically significant impairment in school performance, behavior, learning, or development for the child as reported by the child and/or caregiver;
    • the sleep disturbance does not occur exclusively in the context of an intrinsic dyssomnia such as narcolepsy, restless legs syndrome, or sleep-related breathing disorders; a circadian rhythm disorder; or a parasomnia;
    • the sleep disturbance is not attributable to either the direct physiologic effect of a drug of abuse or misuse of a prescribed medication.

Exclusion Criteria:

  1. Pregnancy and/or breastfeeding;
  2. The presence of any untreated (where treatment is available), or unstable, progressive, or evolving clinically significant renal, endocrine, hepatic, respiratory, cardiovascular, neurologic, hematologic, immunologic, cerebrovascular disease or malignancy;
  3. Elevations in screening blood tests of renal (SCr) and liver (ALT, AST and/or bilirubin) > 2 times the upper limit of normal for age.
  4. Receiving any medications that may modulate Zolpidem metabolism, primarily drugs that will enhance or reduce the activity of CYP450 3A, 2C9, or 2D6 activity. Note: If patient is receiving a medication that might be considered an inducer or an inhibitor, please discuss with the PI prior to excluding them.
  5. Receiving any medications with sleep-impairing properties at a dose/dose interval that would be judged by the study investigator as to interfere with the assessment of Zolpidem sleep response.
  6. Currently using any systemic contraceptive steroids including: oral contraceptives, transdermal patch, vaginal insert, levonorgestrel implant and medroxyprogesterone acetate contraceptive injection.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT00494468

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United States, Arkansas
Arkansas Children's Hospital Research Center Inc.
Little Rock, Arkansas, United States, 72202
United States, California
University of California at San Diego
La Jolla, California, United States, 92093
United States, Colorado
National Jewish Medical and Research Center
Denver, Colorado, United States, 80206
United States, Louisiana
Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center
Shreveport, Louisiana, United States, 71103
United States, Missouri
Children's Mercy Hospital & Clinics
Kansas City, Missouri, United States, 64108
United States, Ohio
Children's Hospital Research Foundation
Cincinnati, Ohio, United States, 45229
Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital
Cleveland, Ohio, United States, 44106
Children's Hospital
Columbus, Ohio, United States, 43205
United States, Pennsylvania
The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, 19104
United States, Tennessee
University of Tennessee College of Medicine
Memphis, Tennessee, United States, 38103
United States, Texas
Texas Children's Hospital
Houston, Texas, United States, 77030
Sponsors and Collaborators
Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD)
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Principal Investigator: Jeffrey L. Blumer, Ph.D., M. D. Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital
Layout table for additonal information Identifier: NCT00494468    
Other Study ID Numbers: PPRU-10590
First Posted: June 29, 2007    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: June 29, 2007
Last Verified: November 2005
Keywords provided by Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD):
Sleep Disorder
Sleep Deprivation
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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GABA-A Receptor Agonists
GABA Agonists
Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders
Sleep Wake Disorders
Sleep Disorders, Intrinsic
Nervous System Diseases
Mental Disorders
Neurologic Manifestations
Sleep Aids, Pharmaceutical
Hypnotics and Sedatives
Central Nervous System Depressants
Physiological Effects of Drugs
GABA Agents
Neurotransmitter Agents
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action