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Pilot Study of Raptiva to Treat Sjogren's Syndrome

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT00344448
Recruitment Status : Terminated (Increased risk of PML associated with raptiva in other studies)
First Posted : June 26, 2006
Results First Posted : December 21, 2015
Last Update Posted : December 21, 2015
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Gabor Illei, M.D., National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC)

Brief Summary:

This study will examine the effect of the drug Raptiva (efalizumab) in patients with Sjögren's syndrome (SS), an autoimmune disease affecting the glands producing saliva & tears. The cause of SS is not known, but inflammation plays an important role. Raptiva is approved by the Food and Drug Administration to treat psoriasis, an inflammatory skin disease. Patients 18 years of age & older with SS may be eligible for this study. Candidates are screened with a history & physical examination, chest x-ray, and oral & eye examinations.

Participants are randomly assigned to receive either Raptiva or placebo (an inactive substance that looks like Raptiva) for the first 3 months of the study. For the next 3 months, all participants receive Raptiva. Both Raptiva & placebo are injected under the skin once a week. Evaluation during treatment & for 2 months after treatment as follows:

Full comprehensive evaluations (beginning of the study, at weeks 13 & 25 and 2 months after treatment ends):

  • Physical examination & blood draw.
  • Saliva collection done in two ways: 1) suctions cups connected to collection tubes are placed over the salivary gland ducts in the mouth and under the tongue; and 2) a sour-tasting liquid is applied to the top & sides of the tongue at 30-second intervals to stimulate saliva production.
  • Eye exam for tear gland function.
  • Questionnaires about mouth & eye dryness, energy level and overall well-being.
  • Lip biopsy (screening & week 13 visits only). A few minor salivary glands are removed for examination under a microscope. The lower lip is numbed, a small cut is made on the inside of the lip, and several glands are removed. The cut is closed with a few stitches that are removed after 5 to 7 days.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging of the parotid glands (salivary glands near the ear) at weeks 1, 13 and 25. The patient lies on a stretcher that is moved into the scanner (a metal cylinder containing a strong magnetic field). The head is held in place during the scan. The study lasts about 90 minutes.
  • Short evaluations at weeks 3, 5, 9, 15, 17, 21 and 1 month after treatment ends.
  • Medical history & physical examination, blood draw, evaluation for changes in symptoms and side effects, review of current medications at weeks 3, 9, 15 and 21.
  • Laboratory tests, evaluation for changes in symptoms and side effects, review of current medications, saliva collection without the sour liquid and short evaluation of tear production at weeks 5 and 17.
  • Blood tests at week 29

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Sjogren's Syndrome Drug: Raptiva Phase 2

Detailed Description:

The LFA-1/ICAM-1 interaction is important in migration of lymphocytes to inflammatory sites, T-lymphocyte activation, antigen presentation, and maintaining the integrity of the immunologic synapse. In both murine and human Sjogren's Syndrome, increased expression of LFA-1 was found on activated lymphocytes, and increased expression of ICAM-1 was present on the activated endothelial cells in the diseased salivary and lacrimal glands. In animal models, blockade of the LFA-1/ICAM-1 interaction resulted in reduction of glandular inflammation.

Raptiva (efalizumab) is a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to human CD11a, the alpha-subunit of Leukocyte Function Antigen-1 (LFA-1) and inhibits the LFA-1/ICAM-1 interaction. Raptiva is an FDA-approved medication for treatment of mild-to-moderate psoriasis.

In this pilot, proof of concept, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, up to 25 patients with Sjogren's syndrome may be enrolled. In the first, double-blind phase of the study, patients will be randomized and treated with weekly subcutaneous (SC) injections of either Raptiva (1mg/kg) or placebo for 12 weeks. In the second open label phase, all patients will be treated with weekly SC injections of Raptiva (1mg/kg) for another 12 weeks and then followed for an additional 8 weeks. Safety will be evaluated using standard clinical and laboratory parameters. To assess the potential effect of Raptiva on Sjogren's syndrome, minor salivary gland biopsy, oral and ocular evaluations, and measurements of surrogate markers of inflammation will be compared between the Raptiva and placebo treated groups before and after the treatment. Patients who either do not tolerate the drug or have worsening in their disease activity will be withdrawn from the protocol.

If Raptiva is well tolerated in this study and the treatment is associated with improvement in clinical parameters of Sjogren's Syndrome, further large studies of efficacy are planned.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 10 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Double (Participant, Investigator)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Randomized, Placebo Controlled, Proof of Concept, Study of Raptiva, a Humanized Anti-CD-11a Monoclonal Antibody, in Patients With Sjogren's Syndrome
Study Start Date : June 2006
Actual Primary Completion Date : January 2009
Actual Study Completion Date : January 2009

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Raptiva
At the beginning of the first (week 1) and second (week 13) phases, all patients will receive reduced dose of the study medication determined at 0.7 mg/kg/week. During all the subsequent administrations, all patients will receive full dose of the study medication determined at 1 mg/kg/week.
Drug: Raptiva
During the first phase of the study, subjects are randomized in a double blind fashion to receive weekly subcutaneous injections of efalizumab (Raptiva) or placebo (weeks 0-12). The second 12 weeks long phase is open label with all subjects receiving weekly subcutaneous injections of efalizumab.
Other Names:
  • efalizumab
  • anti-CD11a monoclonal antibody

Placebo Comparator: placebo
Weekly subcutaneous injection of a placebo (formulated to match the commercial vial of Raptiva in appearance and content except for the active ingredient) for the first 12 weeks of the study.
Drug: Raptiva
During the first phase of the study, subjects are randomized in a double blind fashion to receive weekly subcutaneous injections of efalizumab (Raptiva) or placebo (weeks 0-12). The second 12 weeks long phase is open label with all subjects receiving weekly subcutaneous injections of efalizumab.
Other Names:
  • efalizumab
  • anti-CD11a monoclonal antibody

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Response Rate at the End of the First (Blinded, Placebo Controlled) Phase at 12 Weeks [ Time Frame: 3 months ]

    Patient will be considered a responder if (s)he demonstrates improvement in 2 / 3 disease activity measures without worsening of the third one.

    1. Salivary flow: 0.45 ml / 15 min improvement in unstimulated whole salivary flow from baseline value obtained at the study entry.
    2. Salivary gland biopsy:

      at least 2 points improvement in the focus score on MSG biopsy

    3. Tear flow:

    at least 30% improvement in ophthalmic Oxford grading scheme or normalization of the scale as defined by score of 0 or 2mm improvement in Schirmer test as compared with the baseline in either eye.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Up to 25 patients may be enrolled in this study to obtain at least 20 patients to complete the study and to allow for an estimated up to 20% early attrition rate. Eligible patients will have primary SS diagnosed according to the American-European Consensus Group Sjogren's Syndrome Classification Criteria. Subjects will be chosen based on their potential capacity to reverse the inflammatory process and at least partially recover the exocrine function in the salivary and lacrimal glands, as indicated in the inclusion criteria by requiring a minimal level of salivary flow as a marker of functional gland tissue. Pre-screening, which would include ophthalmologic evaluation, standard laboratory tests, and minor salivary gland biopsy, will be performed under the natural history protocol, and eligible patients will be offered to sign the informed consent for this protocol.

Age at entry at least 18 years

Must give written informed consent prior to entry in the protocol.

Must fulfill at least 4 of the 6 following criteria for Primary SS as defined by the American-European Consensus Group Sjogren's Syndrome Classification Criteria, including either item IV or VI, or fulfill 3 of the 4 objective criteria (III, IV, V, VI) [53] :

Ocular symptoms (at least one):

Dry eyes greater than 3 months

Foreign body sensation in the eyes

Use of artificial tears greater than 3x/day

Oral symptoms (at least one):

Dry mouth greater than 3 months

Swollen salivary glands

Need liquids to swallow dry foods

Ocular signs (at least one):

Schirmer test (without anesthesia) less than or equal to 5 mm/5 min

Positive vital dye staining (van Bijsterveld greater than or equal to 4)

Histopathology: Minor salivary gland biopsy showing focal lymphocyte sialoadenitis (focus score greater than or equal to 1 per 4 mm(2))

Oral signs (at least one):

Unstimulated whole salivary flow (less than or equal to 1.5 ml in 15 min)

Abnormal parotid sialography

Abnormal salivary scintigraphy

Autoantibodies (at least one):

Anti-SSA or Anti-SSB

One or more of the following:

Serum ANA level greater than or equal to 1EU

Serum Anti-SSA level greater than or equal to 20EU

Serum Anti-SSB level greater than or equal to 20EU

Serum RF level greater than or equal to 20 IU/ml

One or more of the following:

ESR greater than 25 mm/hr for men; ESR greater than 42 mm/hr for women

Serum IgG level greater than or equal to 1750 mg/dl

Serum CRP level greater than or equal to 0.8 mg/dl

Stimulated salivary flow of at least 0.1 ml/min.

Minor salivary gland biopsy with a focus score of greater than or equal to 4 within at most 12 months prior to the study enrollment.

Score of 3 or more on Oxford scale in at least one eye at the study entry.

Negative age- and gender- appropriate malignancy screening for breast, cervical, colorectal cancer for women; and prostate and colorectal cancer for men. Specifically:

  • All women: pelvic exam with Papanicolaou smear within one year of study entry.
  • Women age 40 and older: mammogram within 1 year of study entry,
  • Both genders age 50 and older; stool screening for occult blood within one year, or flexible sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy within five years
  • Men age 50 and older: rectal examination or prostate specific antigen testing


Past head and neck irradiation.

Hepatitis B, C, HIV, or HTLV infection.

History of lymphoma or monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS).


Graft-versus-host disease.

Women of childbearing potential are required to have a negative pregnancy test at screening.

Women of childbearing potential and fertile men who are not practicing or who are unwilling to practice birth control during and for a period of three months after the completion of the study.

Any therapy with human or murine antibodies or any experimental therapy within 3 months.

Therapy with cyclophosphamide, pulse methylprednisolone or IVIg, azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil, oral cyclosporine or methotrexate within 4 weeks of first study treatment.

History of rituximab therapy.

Prednisone dose greater than or equal to 10 mg/day.

Allergy to murine or human antibodies.

History of anaphylaxis.

Serum creatinine greater than 2.0 mg/dl.

History of any malignancy.

Active infection that requires the use of intravenous antibiotics and does not resolve within 1 week of Day 1.

Any active viral infection that does not resolve within 10 days prior to Day 1.

WBC less than 2000/microL or ANC less than 1500/microL or Hgb less than 9.0 g/dL or platelets less than 150,000/microL or absolute lymphocyte count less than or equal to 500/microL.

ALT and/or AST greater than 1.5x upper limit of normal (ULN) or alkaline phosphatase greater than 1.5x ULN.

Significant concurrent medical condition that, in the opinion of the Principal Investigator, could affect the patient's ability to tolerate or complete the study.

Live vaccines within 12 weeks of first treatment.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT00344448

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United States, Maryland
National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, 9000 Rockville Pike
Bethesda, Maryland, United States, 20892
Sponsors and Collaborators
National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR)
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Principal Investigator: Gabor G Illei, MD, PhD, MHS National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR)
Additional Information:
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Responsible Party: Gabor Illei, M.D., Head of Sjogren's Syndrome Clinic, National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC) Identifier: NCT00344448    
Other Study ID Numbers: 060181
06-D-0181 ( Other Identifier: The National Institutes of Health )
First Posted: June 26, 2006    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: December 21, 2015
Last Update Posted: December 21, 2015
Last Verified: November 2015
Keywords provided by Gabor Illei, M.D., National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC):
Adhesion Molecule
Interventional Study
Sjogren Syndrome
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Sjogren's Syndrome
Pathologic Processes
Arthritis, Rheumatoid
Joint Diseases
Musculoskeletal Diseases
Rheumatic Diseases
Salivary Gland Diseases
Mouth Diseases
Stomatognathic Diseases
Dry Eye Syndromes
Lacrimal Apparatus Diseases
Eye Diseases
Connective Tissue Diseases
Autoimmune Diseases
Immune System Diseases
Antibodies, Monoclonal
Immunologic Factors
Physiological Effects of Drugs