COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation.
Get the latest public health information from CDC:

Get the latest research information from NIH: Menu

Combined Vi Vaccination and Health Education Program on the Burden of Typhoid in Childhood

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT00125047
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : July 29, 2005
Last Update Posted : August 26, 2008
Aga Khan University
Wellcome Trust
University of Western Ontario, Canada
Information provided by:
International Vaccine Institute

Brief Summary:
This study is part of the International Vaccine Institute's (IVI's) typhoid Vi demonstration project that aims to accelerate the rational introduction of Vi vaccines in typhoid endemic countries. The purpose of this study is to determine the effectiveness of the Vi vaccine following a mass typhoid immunization campaign in an endemic area in Karachi, Pakistan. The cost-effectiveness of Vi vaccination and the logistic feasibility of a mass typhoid immunization campaign will also be evaluated.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Typhoid Paratyphoid Fever Biological: Typhoid Vi vaccine Biological: Hepatitis A vaccine Phase 4

Detailed Description:

Typhoid fever is a major cause of morbidity worldwide. The disease predominantly affects school-aged children, is more prevalent in urban areas, may last for several weeks and can lead to serious complications. Management of this disease is further complicated by the emergence of multi-drug resistant strains. Vaccination of high risk populations is considered the most promising strategy for the control of typhoid fever. The Vi polysaccharide vaccine has been targeted for accelerated introduction into public health programs due to the following reasons: it has been shown to have consistent efficacy results even in areas of high typhoid incidence; is given as a single dose; lacks patent protection and requires less strict cold chain requirements. A cluster-randomized trial involving the Vi polysaccharide vaccine and an active control (hepatitis A) was designed to determine the effectiveness and the feasibility of providing Vi vaccine under actual programmatic conditions in 3 urban slums in Pakistan. The vaccines used in this study are internationally produced and locally licensed. A complimentary, targeted, basic typhoid prevention health education program for the entire population at the initiation of the project will be provided and the actual Vi-demonstration project will be preceded by a 12-month typhoid surveillance activity.

Secondary objectives of this trial are:

  • To monitor the adverse events following a routine Vi mass vaccination campaign;
  • To assess the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices among parents and health care providers regarding typhoid illness, treatment and prevention; and
  • To study typhoid fever risk factors in the population.

A nested, prospective matched case-control study is included in the trial in order to study typhoid risk factors among children in Karachi.

Layout table for study information
Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 27231 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Quadruple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Prevention
Official Title: Effectiveness of a Combined Vi Vaccination and Health Education Program on Reducing the Burden of Typhoid During Childhood: A Demonstration Project in Karachi
Study Start Date : October 2001
Actual Primary Completion Date : August 2007
Actual Study Completion Date : August 2007

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

MedlinePlus related topics: Hepatitis A

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: 1
Typhoid Vi polysaccharide vaccine
Biological: Typhoid Vi vaccine
Single 0.5ml dose containing 25ug purified Vi polysaccharide of S. typhi.
Other Name: Typherix

Active Comparator: 2
Inactivated Hepatitis A vaccine
Biological: Hepatitis A vaccine
single 0.5ml dose contains 720 EL.U. of inactivated hepatitis A viral antigen
Other Name: Havrix

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Total protection against S. typhi [ Time Frame: 2 years from zero time ]

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Indirect protection against s. typhi [ Time Frame: two years from zero time ]
  2. Overall protection against s. typhi [ Time Frame: 2 years from zero time ]
  3. Adverse event(s) following immunization [ Time Frame: 30 days from vaccination ]

Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.

Layout table for eligibility information
Ages Eligible for Study:   2 Years to 16 Years   (Child)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Registered in the project census
  • Age: 2-16 years

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Fever >37.5 degrees Celsius, axillary
  • Pregnancy
  • Lactating

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT00125047

Layout table for location information
Aga Khan University
Karachi, Pakistan
Sponsors and Collaborators
International Vaccine Institute
Aga Khan University
Wellcome Trust
University of Western Ontario, Canada
Layout table for investigator information
Principal Investigator: Zulfiqar A Bhutta, MBBS, PhD Aga Khan University
Layout table for additonal information
Responsible Party: Mr. Leon Ochiai, International Vaccine Institute Identifier: NCT00125047    
Other Study ID Numbers: T-7
First Posted: July 29, 2005    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: August 26, 2008
Last Verified: August 2008
Keywords provided by International Vaccine Institute:
typhoid vaccine
enteric fever
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Layout table for MeSH terms
Typhoid Fever
Paratyphoid Fever
Salmonella Infections
Enterobacteriaceae Infections
Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections
Bacterial Infections
Immunologic Factors
Physiological Effects of Drugs