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A Novel Method to Determine HIV Incidence Among Youth

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT00103883
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : February 16, 2005
Last Update Posted : March 1, 2017
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill

Brief Summary:
Identifying young people with early HIV-1 infection is important for increasing linkage to care, for behavioral counseling, and for enrolling individuals into programs that can provide effective interventions to disease progression and improve outcome. This study will develop and evaluate a saliva-based sensitive/less sensitive (S/LS) assay for differentiating persons with recent HIV-1 infection (less than 133 days) from those with established HIV-1 infection.

Condition or disease
HIV Infection

Detailed Description:

HIV infection incidence estimates are important, not only for determining specific populations where community HIV education sessions can have the most benefit or where changes in infection patterns are occurring, but also to target these populations for therapeutic interventions and measure their effect in the community. It is estimated that half of all new HIV infections in the United States occur in persons under the age of 25 each year, translating to approximately 20,000 new HIV-infected young people annually.

Incidence can be estimated by testing a cohort of individuals for antibody at two different time periods and observing the number of new infections, or by demonstrating the presence of HIV p24 or viral RNA in antibody-negative persons. Since these strategies are logistically difficult, expensive, and/or require significant laboratory infrastructure, new laboratory-based strategies were devised that can classify individuals as recently infected or with established infection. These serologic assays are known as "sensitive/less sensitive (S/LS) assays". They are based on either the concept of antibody titer or the concept of antibody avidity. There are several S/LS tests available but all of them are performed on serum collected via venipuncture. Based on several studies showing that obtaining saliva is a more desirable method of collection for adolescents receiving HIV testing, it is anticipated that the collection of saliva and its use for determining HIV incidence by S/LS methods among adolescents would be a valuable adjunct for population studies and for increasing compliance for testing and enrollment.

The aim of this study is to prove equivalence between the serum S/LS reference method (CDC validated serum S/LS Dilutional Vironostika (DV) from Organon Teknika) and the experimental method that uses an FDA approved saliva collection device (OraSure Technologies). Our rationale follows a syllogism, i.e., if the serum S/LS EIA (DV) is the best serologic method to determine incidence estimates and a saliva S/LS method is found to perform equivalently, then it follows that the saliva S/LS method can be used effectively to determine incidence. Therefore, our purpose is to show equivalence between the two assays. To address the issue of accuracy, further studies are planned to assess the saliva S/LS test against seroconversion panels where the exact time of acquisition of HIV infection is known.

This is a cross-sectional, laboratory-based study designed to develop and evaluate a saliva-based S/LS assay for differentiating individuals with recent HIV infection (less than 133 days) from those with established HIV infection. A total of 440 subjects will be recruited in the study. A serum and two saliva samples will be obtained from every subject. The first 40 patient samples will be used to develop and calibrate the saliva-based S/LS method. The remaining patient samples will be tested using the calibrated saliva based S/LS assay and the reference serum S/LS assay and concordance between the two methods will be analyzed.

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Study Type : Observational
Actual Enrollment : 440 participants
Observational Model: Case-Control
Time Perspective: Cross-Sectional
Official Title: A Novel Method to Determine HIV Incidence Among Youth
Study Start Date : February 2003
Actual Primary Completion Date : March 2007
Actual Study Completion Date : March 2007

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

MedlinePlus related topics: HIV/AIDS

HIV Infected Teens -ATN Clinical Sites
HIV infected teens who are referred to or engaged in care at any of the 15 ATN clinical sites during the course of the study.
HIV Positive - ATN Clinical Sites
Youth who test HIV positive at ATN-managed or ATN-affiliated HIV Counseling and Testing Sites (CTS) during the course of the study.
HIV Positive - BCHD STD Clinic
Youth who test HIV positive at the BCHD STD Clinic during the course of the study.

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Phase I - Serum-based S/LS assay result [ Time Frame: 15-20 Months ]
    To develop and calibrate a saliva S/LS assay using the FDA licensed OraSure collection device in conjunction with its matched saliva EIA assay to differentiate persons with recent versus established HIV infection (Phase I)

  2. Phase II - Saliva-based S/LS assay result [ Time Frame: 15-20 Months ]
    To assess that the saliva S/LS method performs equivalently to the reference serum S/LS method for HIV incidence estimates in populations of youth (Phase II)

Biospecimen Retention:   Samples Without DNA
Phenotypic and genotypic testing for antiretroviral drug (ART) resistance will be done on stored samples from all subjects who are identified as recently infected by the serum based DV S/LS reference method. An assay for viral replication fitness will also be done on these same samples. This testing will provide a recent assessment of prevalence of transmitted ART resistant HIV-1 in this population.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   12 Years to 24 Years   (Child, Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Sampling Method:   Non-Probability Sample
Study Population
Two hundred fifty subjects will be recruited from the fifteen sites of the Adolescent Trials Network for HIV/AIDS Interventions (ATN) and 190 from the BCHD STD Clinic, a sexually transmitted disease clinic of the Baltimore City Health Department (BCHD). The age range for subjects from the ATN clinical sites will be 12 through 24 years and those from the BCHD STD Clinic will be 17 through 30 years.

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Age 12 through 24 years
  • HIV infection determined by routine HIV testing strategies
  • Ability to give informed consent or assent with parental permission, where required

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Visibly distraught or emotionally unstable
  • Intoxicated or under the influence of psychoactive agents
  • First disclosure of sexual, physical, or emotional abuse
  • Clinically presents as acutely ill

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT00103883

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United States, California
Children's Hospital of Los Angeles
Los Angeles, California, United States, 90027
University of California at San Diego
San Diego, California, United States, 92103
University of California at San Francisco
San Francisco, California, United States, 94118
United States, District of Columbia
Children's National Medical Center
Washington, DC, District of Columbia, United States, 20010
United States, Florida
Children's Diagnostic and Treatment Center
Fort Lauderdale, Florida, United States, 33316
University of Miami
Miami, Florida, United States, 33101
University of South Florida
Tampa, Florida, United States, 33606
United States, Illinois
Stroger Hospital of Cook County
Chicago, Illinois, United States, 60612
United States, Louisiana
Tulane University
New Orleans, Louisiana, United States, 70112
United States, Maryland
University of Maryland Medical School
Baltimore, Maryland, United States, 21201
United States, Massachusetts
Childrens Hospital Boston
Boston, Massachusetts, United States, 02115
United States, New York
Montefiore Medical Center
Bronx, New York, United States, 10467
Mount Sinai Hospital
New York, New York, United States, 10128
United States, Pennsylvania
Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, 19104
Puerto Rico
University Pediatric Hospital
San Juan, Puerto Rico, 00936
Sponsors and Collaborators
University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
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Study Chair: Ligia Peralta, MD University of Maryland, College Park

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Responsible Party: University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill Identifier: NCT00103883    
Other Study ID Numbers: ATN 022
First Posted: February 16, 2005    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: March 1, 2017
Last Verified: February 2016
Keywords provided by University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill:
Detuned Assay
Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA)
HIV Incidence
Laboratory assay
Sensitive/Less sensitive Assay
Acute Infection
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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HIV Infections
Lentivirus Infections
Retroviridae Infections
RNA Virus Infections
Virus Diseases
Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes
Immune System Diseases